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Title: Reed's Law - An Interview
Author: David Reed interviewed by Dr. Weinberger of JOHO
Publication: The Journal of the Hyperlinked Organization
Publication Date: 1/19/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: David Reed is one of the Internet's original. He explains that the value of the Net comes not from its raw connections but from its group-forming ability. "Reed's Law" is based on the fundamental insight that the Net's value comes from its enabling of groups, not just of individual-to-individual connections.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Wireless
Keywords: networks, group-forming, David Reed, Reed's Law, Metcalfe's Law

Title: Group Forming Networks Resource Page
Author: David P. Reed
Abstract or Excerpt: This website is a link to all of the online resources that David Reed (Reed's Law) wants to share relating to group forming networks, scaling, "Metcalfe's Law" and "Reed's Law".
Keywords: Barnraising and Brainstorming Online, David Reed, Reed's Law, group forming

Title: Making Sense Of Networks
Author: Eric Bonabeau
Publication: Santa Fe Institute
Publication Date: 5/4/1999
Abstract or Excerpt: We are surrounded by networks of all kinds: computer networks, road networks, ecological networks, economic networks etc. We are collections of biological networks such as the neural and immune system and we belong to many different social networks. Although all these networks operate over a wide spectrum of scales and implement a huge variety of functions they may share essential structural and/or dynamical features. By understanding the operating principles we can formulate better strategies for managing commercial organisations.
Subjects: Cooperation, Surveillance
Keywords: networks, social network analysis, connectivity

Title: Annotated Bibliography on The Evolution of Cooperation
Author: Robert Axelrod and Lisa D'Ambrosio
Publication Date: 10/1/1994
Abstract or Excerpt: This is a guide to recent research on the evolution of cooperation. This is the second such document. The first was compiled by Robert Axelrod and Douglas Dion in 1988. Entries in this bibliography cover the period 1988 to early 1994. For a review of work prior to 1988 see the Axelrod and Dion entry in this bibliography.
Subjects: Cooperation, Sociology
Keywords: Axelrod, The Evolution of Cooperation, Prisoner's Dilemma, Tit-for-Tat

Title: Excluding Free-Riders Improves Reciprocity and Promotes the Private Provision of Public Goods
Author: Daniel Houser, with Anna Gunthorsdottir, Kevin McCabe and Holly Ameden
Publication: Working Paper
Publication Date: 8/7/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Private incentives to invest in a public good are modeled as self-interested reciprocity where individuals use reputational scoring rules to determine their optimal level of investment. The model suggests that any subject can be classified as either a "free-rider" or a "cooperator" based on their first period investment in a voluntary contribution experiment and predicts that excluding free-riders will improve, and in some circumstances sustain, cooperators' private investment in the public good. Actual investment behavior is then studied with laboratory experiments that compare the contributions of subjects randomly reassigned into groups to contributions under a mechanism that sorts subjects into groups based on their individual investment decisions. The sorting mechanism helps to exclude free-riders from cooperators and leads to statistically significant increases in cooperators' investments in the public good.
Subjects: Cooperation, Sociology
Keywords: Collective Action, Free riders, Daniel Houser, private incentives, voluntary contribution experiment, cooperators, contributions, reciprocity

Title: A Chronology of Game Theory
Author: Paul Walker
Publication: University of Canterbury, Department of Economics
Publication Date: 5/1/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Game theory is a distinct and interdisciplinary approach to the study of human behavior. The disciplines most involved in game theory are mathematics, economics and the other social and behavioral sciences. Game theory (like computational theory and so many other contributions) was founded by the great mathematician John von Neumann. The first important book was The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, which von Neumann wrote in collaboration with the great mathematical economist, Oskar Morgenstern. Certainly Morgenstern brought ideas from neoclassical economics into the partnership, but von Neumann, too, was well aware of them and had made other contributions to neoclassical economics.
Subjects: Cooperation
Keywords: game theory, cooperative games, strategy, games

Title: International Journal of Game Theory
Publication: Springer-Verlag Heidelberg
Abstract or Excerpt: International Journal of Game Theory is devoted to game theory and its applications. It publishes original research making significant contributions from a methodological, conceptual or mathematical point of view.
Subjects: Cooperation
Keywords: game theory

Title: Strategy and Conflict: An Introductory Sketch of Game Theory
Author: Roger Ashton McCain
Publication: The William King Server
Abstract or Excerpt: Game theory is a distinct and interdisciplinary approach to the study of human behavior. The disciplines most involved in game theory are mathematics, economics and the other social and behavioral sciences. Game theory (like computational theory and so many other contributions) was founded by the great mathematician John von Neumann. The first important book was The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, which von Neumann wrote in collaboration with the great mathematical economist, Oskar Morgenstern. Certainly Morgenstern brought ideas from neoclassical economics into the partnership, but von Neumann, too, was well aware of them and had made other contributions to neoclassical economics.
Subjects: Cooperation
Keywords: dominant strategy equilibrium, game theory, John von Neumann, rationality, Neoclassical economics, Oskar Morgenstern, The Prisoners' Dilemma

Title: Bay Area Wireless User Group
Abstract or Excerpt: With the understanding that wireless access can and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost and increase the ease to share resources and access to the Internet, the Bay Area Wireless Users Group was founded to promote wireless use for the Greater San Francisco Bay Area.
Subjects: Mobile Phones, Wireless
Keywords: 802.11b, community, grassroots network

Title: Game Theory Society
Abstract or Excerpt: Founded in January 1999, the society aims to promote the investigation, teaching and application of game theory.
Subjects: Cooperation
Keywords: game theory, real-world strategic interaction,

Title: Friends and Neighbors on the Web
Author: Lada A. Adamic and Eytan Adar
Publication: Xerox PARC
Publication Date: 3/2/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The Internet has become a rich and large repository of information about us as individuals. Anything from the links and text on a user's homepage to the mailing lists the user subscribes to are reflections of social interactions a user has in the real world. In this paper we devise techniques to mine this information in order to predict relationships between individuals. Further we show that some pieces of information are better indicators of social connections than others, and that these indicators vary between user populations and provide a glimpse into the social lives of individuals in different communities. Our techniques provide potential applications in automatically inferring real-world connections and discovering, labeling, and characterizing communities.
Subjects: Cooperation
Keywords: homepage analysis, social network, small worlds, web communities

Title: P2P Goes To War
Author: Richard Koman
Publication: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
Publication Date: 8/28/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: For several decades, the military has been using large-scale client-server systems to build networked environments where soldiers can train in simulated battle conditions. Now the military is looking at peer-to-peer technology as a way to build these simulations without a vulnerable central server. Michael Macedonia, the Chief Scientist and Technical Director for the U.S. Army Simulation, Training, and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM), talks with O'Reilly editor Richard Koman about how the military simulates battle, how peer-to-peer technology could change that, and the advances that have made a $69 flight simulator program as valuable as the multimillion dollar systems of a few years ago. Michael Macedonia will talk at the O'Reilly's Peer-to-Peer and Web Services Conference, September 18-21, in Washington, DC.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P, Wireless
Keywords: military, simulations, simulation on demand, head-mounted display (HMD), augmented reality, spatial recognition, GPS, Michael Macedonia, U.S. Army Simulation, Training, and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM)

Title: Wikipedia
Abstract or Excerpt: Wikipedia is the name of an open content, WikiWiki encyclopedia found at, as well as of its supporting, very active encyclopedia-building project. The particular version of wiki software that runs Wikipedia is UseModWiki, for which Clifford Adams is responsible. The main and original wikipedia is in English (American, British, or other, depending on the participant), but there are a number of Wikipedias in other languages as well, the most active of which, as of September 2001, is the [German-language Wikipedia].
Subjects: Cooperation
Keywords: Wikipedia, WikiWiki

Title: Fact-Driven? Collegial? This Site Wants You
Author: Peter Meyers
Publication: New York Times
Publication Date: 9/20/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: For all the human traffic that the Web attracts, most sites remain fairly solitary destinations. People shop by themselves, retrieve information alone and post messages that they hope others will eventually notice. But some sites are looking for ways to enable visitors not only to interact but even to collaborate to change the sites themselves. Wikipedia ( is one such site, a place where 100 or so volunteers have been working since January to compile a free encyclopedia. Using a relatively unknown and simple software tool called Wiki, they are involved in a kind of virtual barn- raising.
Subjects: Cooperation
Keywords: Wikipedia, WikiWiki, free encyclopedia, Linux, Nupedia

Title: Prince Kropotkin of Software
Author: Nikolai Bezroukov
Abstract or Excerpt: Richard Stallman and his anarchistic GNU project. "The most famous work of Prince Kropotkin was Mutual Aid A Factor of Evolution. In this book he opposes the Darwin theory that only the strongest and toughest can keep up with the evolution. His view is that not rivalry but mutual aid is the key factor for survival. With many examples he shows that socializing rather than rivalry dominate. Even in the human world mutual aid is more the rule than the exception. Kropotkin traces the mutual aid back from primitive tribes over early villages, communes to the present with the unions, the Red Cross and so on. He believes that the trend of the modern world goes back to decentralized, apolitical, cooperative societies, in which people can be creative by themselves without influence from bosses, soldiers, priests and other positions of power."
Subjects: Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: Open source, Stallman, Kropotkin, Mutual Aid A Factor of Evolution

Title: The Internet Under Siege
Author: Lawrence Lessig
Publication: Foreign Policy, November/December 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Who owns the Internet? Until recently, nobody. That's because, although the Internet was "Made in the U.S.A.," its unique design transformed it into a resource for innovation that anyone in the world could use. Today, however, courts and corporations are attempting to wall off portions of cyberspace. In so doing, they are destroying the Internet's potential to foster democracy and economic growth worldwide.
Keywords: Personal SWOT, democracy, innovation commons, tragedy of the commons

Title: "Some Experimental Games," Research Memorandum RM-789
Author: Merrill M. Flood
Publication: RAND Corporation, 1952

Title: The Tragedy of the Commons
Author: Garrett Hardin
Publication: Science 162, 13 December 1968, 1243-1248
Abstract or Excerpt: The only way we can preserve and nurture other and more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the freedom to breed, and that very soon. "Freedom is the recognition of necessity" -- and it is the role of education to reveal to all the necessity of abandoning the freedom to breed. Only so, can we put an end to this aspect of the tragedy of the commons.

Title: The Economic Theory of a Common-Property Resource: The Fishery
Author: H. Scott Gordon
Publication: Journal of Political Economy 62, 1954, 124-142

Title: The Fishery: The Objectives of Sole Ownership
Author: Anthony D. Scott
Publication: Journal of Political Economy 65, 1955, 116-124

Title: Is There Anything New Under the Sun? A Discussion and Survey of Studies on New Commons and the Internet
Author: Charlotte Hess
Publication: Constituting the Commons: Crafting Sustainable Commons in the New Millenium, the Eighth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Bloomington, Indiana, USA, 31 May-4 June 2000
Abstract or Excerpt: This paper surveys the literature of 'new commons,' the Internet and other new CPRs. It examines newly-identified CPRs in the context of the traditional literature and suggests appropriate areas for further research. One of the striking observations is a remarkable growth in the use of the word 'commons' applied to the Internet in the popular and even scientific literature.

Title: The Struggle for Existence in Human Society
Author: Thomas Henry Huxley
Publication: Evolution and Ethics, and Other Essays, London, 1894, 202-218

Title: The Genetical Evolution of Social Behavior
Author: W.D. Hamilton
Publication: Journal of Theoretical Biology 7, 1964, 1-52

Title: On Jargon: The Prisoner's Dilemma
Author: A.W. Tucker
Publication: UMAP Journal 1, 1950, 101

Title: The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism
Author: R.L. Trivers
Publication: Quarterly Review of Biology 46, 1971, 35-37

Title: Reciprocal Food Sharing in the Vampire Bat
Author: G.S. Wilkinson
Publication: Nature 308, 1984, 181-184

Title: TIT FOR TAT in Sticklebacks and the Evolution of Cooperation
Author: Manfred Milinski
Publication: Nature 325, 29 January 1987, 433-435

Title: End-To-End Arguments in System Design
Author: J.H. Saltzer, D.P. Reed and D.D. Clark
Publication: ACM Transactions on Computer Systems 2(4), November 1984, 277-288
Abstract or Excerpt: This paper presents a design principle that helps guide placement of functions among the modules of a distributed computer system. The principle, called the end-to-end argument, suggests that functions placed at low levels of a system may be redundant or of little value when compared with the cost of providing them at that low level.

Title: An Open Letter to Hobbyists
Author: William Henry Gates III
Publication: Altair Users' Newsletter
Publication Date: 2/3/1976

Title: The Evolution of the Unix Time-Sharing System
Author: Dennis M. Ritchie
Publication: AT&T Bell Laboratories Technical Journal 63(6), October 1984, 1577-1593

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