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Title: Leviathan
Author: Thomas Hobbes
Publication: Of The Causes, Generation, and Definition of a Commonwealth, 1651


Title: Netscan
Abstract or Excerpt: Netscan is an experimental software package designed to aid in the sociological study of the Internet being developed by Marc Smith, a research sociologist at Microsoft Research.


Title: The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier
Author: Howard Rheingold
Publication: Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1993


Title: The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life
Author: Erving Goffman
Publication: Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1959


Title: Mapping Social Cyberspaces: Measures and Maps of Usenet, a Computer Mediated Social Space
Author: Marc A. Smith
Publication: (Ph.D. diss., UCLA, 2001), 18
Abstract or Excerpt: This is a study of Collectives action in social cyberspace Usenet, a collection of social cyberspaces in which people gather, interact and exchange digital objects. The anarchic social structure of Usenet makes it a perspicuous setting for the study of the endogenous emergence of social structure, order, cooperation and conflict. I report the results of data mining a large collected set of messages exchanged during the year 2000 through the Usenet. Variations in the size, structure, and dynamics of these newsgroups are presented as well as visualized in an effort to present a holistic overview of this emerging social space. These data and images can be used as metrics for a range of naturally occurring social processes that present Usenet as a global system with complex structures and multiplex interrelationships at multiple scales.


Title: The Struggle for Existence in Human Society
Author: Thomas Henry Huxley
Publication: Evolution and Ethics, and Other Essays (London, 1894), 202-218.
Abstract or Excerpt: That which lies before the human race is a [45] constant struggle to maintain and improve, in opposition to the State of Nature, the State of Art of an organized polity; in which, and by which, man may develop a worthy civilization, capable of maintaining and constantly improving itself, until the evolution of our globe shall have entered so far upon its downward course that the cosmic process resumes its sway; and, once more, the State of Nature prevails over the surface of our planet.


Title: The Evolution of Cooperation
Author: Robert Axelrod
Publication: New York: Basic Books, 1985


Title: Tools for Thought
Author: Howard Rheingold
Publication: Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000


Title: The Computer as a Communication Device
Author: J.C.R. Licklider and R.W. Taylor
Publication: Science and Technology, April 1968, 21-31
Abstract or Excerpt: Man-computer symbiosis is an expected development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers. It will involve very close coupling between the human and the electronic members of the partnership. The main aims are 1) to let computers facilitate formulative thinking as they now facilitate the solution of formulated problems, and 2) to enable men and computers to cooperate in making decisions and controlling complex situations without inflexible dependence on predetermined programs. In the anticipated symbiotic partnership, men will set the goals, formulate the hypotheses, determine the criteria, and perform the evaluations. Computing machines will do the routinizable work that must be done to prepare the way for insights and decisions in technical and scientific thinking. Preliminary analyses indicate that the symbiotic partnership will perform intellectual operations much more effectively than man alone can perform them. Prerequisites for the achievement of the effective, cooperative association include developments in computer time sharing, in memory components, in memory organization, in programming languages, and in input and output equipment.


Title: The Free Software Definition
Author: Richard Stallman
Publication: The GNU Project, Free Software Foundation, 2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Free software is a matter of the users' freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software.


Title: Freed Software Winning Support, Making Waves
Author: Michael Stutz
Publication: Wired News
Publication Date: 1/30/1998
Abstract or Excerpt: Free software has nothing to do with the shareware or freeware programs - distributed without their source code - long familiar to users of PC proprietary applications. Nor is it public domain, which can be exploited by corporations or other entities to produce their own proprietary derivatives. In the Unix culture, free software is about being able to share, reproduce and even modify a program's source code, the instructions which define it.


Title: The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary
Author: Eric Raymond
Publication: Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly and Associates, 1997


Title: BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain)
Abstract or Excerpt: BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) is an implementation of the Domain Name System (DNS) protocols and provides an openly redistributable reference implementation of the major components of the Domain Name System, including: a Domain Name System server (named); a Domain Name System resolver library; and tools for verifying the proper operation of the DNS server.


Title: Architectural Principles of the Internet
Publication: Network Working Group, ed. B. Carpenter
Publication Date: 6/1996
Abstract or Excerpt: The Internet and its architecture have grown in evolutionary fashion from modest beginnings, rather than from a Grand Plan. While this process of evolution is one of the main reasons for the technology's success, it nevertheless seems useful to record a snapshot of the current principles of the Internet architecture. This is intended for general guidance and general interest, and is in no way intended to be a formal or invariant reference model.


Title: Information Management: A Proposal
Author: Tim Berners-Lee
Publication Date: 1989
Abstract or Excerpt: This proposal concerns the management of general information about accelerators and experiments at CERN. It discusses the problems of loss of information about complex evolving systems and derives a solution based on a distributed hypertext system.


Title: Physical Place and CyberPlace: The Rise of Personalized Networking
Author: Barry Wellman
Publication: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25(2), 2001, 227-52
Abstract or Excerpt: Computer networks are social networks. Social affordances of computer supported social networks--broader bandwidth, wireless portability, globalized connectivity, personalization--are fostering the movement from door-to-door and place-to-place communities to person-to-person and role-to-role communities. People connect in social networks rather than in communal groups. In-person and computer-mediated communication are integrated in communities characterized by personalized networking.


Title: That Sneaky Exponential-Beyond Metcalfe's Law to the Power of Community Building
Author: David P. Reed
Publication: Context Magazine
Publication Date: Spring 1999
Abstract or Excerpt: David Reed adds a new law to network theory. He says that the Internet has another important aspect that makes its growth curve sharper than previous information sharing technologies: it facilitates the formation of groups, in a way that Sarnoff and Metcalfe networks do not. The number of groups that can be formed over the Internet isn't the Sarnoff n or Metcalfe n*. It's 2n by the time you add up all the possible two-person groups, three-person groups, etc. So, the value of the Internet grows in proportion to 2n. This effect is called the Group-Forming Law or Reed's Law.
Subjects: Cooperation
Keywords: value, networks, groups, Group-Forming Networks, eBay, network theory, Metcalfe's Law, Sarnoff's Law, Reed's Law


Title: That Sneaky Exponential-Beyond Metcalfe's Law to the Power of Community Building
Author: David P. Reed
Publication: Context Magazine
Publication Date: Spring 1999
Abstract or Excerpt: David Reed adds a new law to network theory. He says that the Internet has another important aspect that makes its growth curve sharper than previous information sharing technologies: it facilitates the formation of groups, in a way that Sarnoff and Metcalfe networks do not. The number of groups that can be formed over the Internet isn't the Sarnoff n or Metcalfe n*. It's 2n by the time you add up all the possible two-person groups, three-person groups, etc. So, the value of the Internet grows in proportion to 2n. This effect is called the Group-Forming Law or Reed's Law.
Subjects: Cooperation
Keywords: value, networks, groups, Group-Forming Networks, eBay, network theory, Metcalfe's Law, Sarnoff's Law, Reed's Law


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