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Title: Shockwave Rider
Author: John Brunner
Publication: New York: Del Rey, 1975


Title: Music-Swapping Is Here to Stay
Author: Brad King
Publication: Wired News
Publication Date: 4/6/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Record companies and artists concerned about profits and the copyright infringement are fighting against the sharing of MP3 files, which are a digital format that makes songs small enough to move around on the Internet very quickly.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: Napster, copyright protection, Gnutella, Recording Industry Association of America, MP3s


Title: Free Riding on Gnutella
Author: Eytan Adar and Bernardo A. Huberman
Publication: First Monday, volume 5, number 10 (October 2000)
Abstract or Excerpt: An extensive analysis of user traffic on Gnutella shows a significant amount of free riding in the system. By sampling messages on the Gnutella network over a 24-hour period, we established that almost 70% of Gnutella users share no files, and nearly 50% of all responses are returned by the top 1% of sharing hosts. Furthermore, we found out that free riding is distributed evenly between domains, so that no one group contributes significantly more than others, and that peers that volunteer to share files are not necessarily those who have desirable ones. We argue that free riding leads to degradation of the system performance and adds vulnerability to the system. If this trend continues copyright issues might become moot compared to the possible collapse of such systems.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P, Privacy, Sociology
Keywords: Gnutella, file-sharing, ad hoc networks, free riding, Huberman, Gnutella network, distribution, distributed networks, sharing hosts, The Tragedy of the Digital Commons


Title: In Praise of Freeloaders
Author: Clay Shirky
Publication: The O'Reilly P2P Conference: Sept. 18-21, 2001, Washington, DC
Publication Date: 12/1/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Clay Shirky discusses the upside of freeloading.
Subjects: Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: freeloading, commons, Napster, file-sharing systems, The Tragedy of the Commons, Mojo Nation, Xerox PARC, Gnutella


Title: False alarm
Author: Catherine Zandonella
Publication: New Scientist magazine
Publication Date: 4/25/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Graduates students at Stanford have come up with a way to detect cheats in distributed computation projects (which sometimes offer incentives for people who return lots of data) by placing false hits within the data to be parsed to prove that it has been fully crunched.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: distributed computing, SETI, cheating


Title: United Devices
Publication Date: 1/1/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: United Devices(tm) is the leading provider of edge distributed computing software and services. We offer the MetaProcessor(tm) platform, an enterprise technology that allows companies to harness the idle resources of their existing computers, either on corporate networks or the Internet. Use the MetaProcessor platform to gain competitive advantage and increase profitability by accelerating mission critical research and business applications.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: distributed computing


Title: Mob Software: The Erotic Life of Code
Author: Richard P. Gabriel and Ron Goldman
Publication: ACM Conference on Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications, October 15-19, 2000, Minneapolis
Abstract or Excerpt: Current programming methodologies and languages are based on old presumptions that are rooted in the foundations of computer science in the 50s, with the emphasis being that only engineers, mathemeticians and computer scientists can know how and what to do to create software.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, P2P, Reputation Systems
Keywords: gift economy, open source, Sugarscape, complex systems, chaos, schema evolution, mob software, performing software, commodity economy, swarm


Title: Will instant messaging become instant spamming?
Author: Stefanie Olsen
Publication: CNET News.com
Publication Date: 2/16/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Online marketers are combining the power of instant messaging with that of peer-to-peer networks such as Napster to create a new wave of Web advertising that some critics call more invasive than spam.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, P2P, Privacy, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: marketing, instant messaging, networks, advertising, IM, networks, Napster


Title: Intel Philanthropic Peer-to-Peer Program
Author: Intel
Abstract or Excerpt: Intel Philanthropic Peer-to-Peer Program is using the power of peer-to-peer technology to usher in a new era of scientific computing. By lending your spare PC resources to the effort, you can help fundamentally change the manner and speed of medical discovery.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: Philanthropic Peer-to-peer Program,


Title: NASA clickworkers study: NASA Ames's new experiment in volunteer science
Publication Date: 11/17/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: There are many scientific tasks that require human perception and common sense, but may not require a lot of scientific training. Identifying craters on Mars is something almost anyone can do, and classifying them by age is only a little harder. This an experiment to see if public volunteers, each working for a few minutes here and there, can do some routine science analysis that would normally be done by a scientist or graduate student working for months on end.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: NASA


Title: Put On Your Thinking Cap: Chris McKinstry Wants to Build a Brain Accelerator
Author: Robert X. Cringely
Publication: The Pulpit
Publication Date: 8/24/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: The Mindpixel Corpus will soon be the world's largest database of consensus human knowledge, built by tens of thousands of people just like you from all over Earth, speaking many languages.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET)
Keywords: Chris McKinstry, mindpixel, neural net, Turing Test, human experience


Title: Collective Brainpower: Researchers Muster Online Volunteers for Help in Completing Large Projects
Author: Pamela Licalzi O'Connell
Publication: Marin Independent Journal
Publication Date: 3/17/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Researchers muster online volunteers for help in completing large projects.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation
Keywords: collaboration, research, volunteer, Mindpixel, Chris McKinstry, distributed human projects, Open Mind Initiative, Open Directory Project, Openmind Commonsense, Distributed Proofreaders, Clickworkers


Title: Internet-based Distributed Computing Projects
Author: Editor: Kirk Pearson
Abstract or Excerpt: "What is Distributed Computing?" Distributed computing is a science which solves a large problem by giving small parts of the problem to many computers to solve and then combining the solutions for the parts into a solution for the problem. Recent distributed computing projects have been designed to use the computers of hundreds of thousands of volunteers all over the world, via the Internet, to look for extra-terrestrial radio signals, to look for prime numbers so large that they have more than one million digits, and to find more effective drugs to fight the AIDS virus. These projects are so large, and require so much computing power to solve, that they would be impossible for any one computer or person to solve in a reasonable amount of time.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P
Keywords: distributed computing, computing, volunteer projects,


Title: The Soul of the Ultimate Machine
Author: John Markoff
Publication: The New York Times
Publication Date: 12/10/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Dr. Larry Smarr explains his vision of a thinking machine that could emerge spontaneously from billions of interconnected computers.
Subjects: Collective Computation, P2P, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Pervasive Computing, Larry Smarr, supercomputing, MEMS


Title: Idle Computer Time Can Fight Cancer
Author: Henry Norr
Publication: San Francisco Chronicle, B1
Publication Date: 4/4/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Intel is putting its muscle behind a campaign to "turn your screen saver into a life saver." The Santa Clara chipmaker launched an initiative yesterday to convince computer users to dedicate unused processing power on their PCs to the fight against cancer. A program available from the company's Web site (www.intel. com/cure) will help medical researchers identify molecules that show promise as possible new treatments for leukemia.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET)
Keywords: Intel, Fight Cancer Intel


Title: The Origin of P2PQ
Abstract or Excerpt: P2PQ works like Peer to Peer music services, but instead of searching peoples hard drives for music, we search peoples brains for knowledge, and then return that knowledge to a single webpage for you to read. Download the client and Put your mind online!
Subjects: Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: P2PQ, Swarm Supercomputing, Kadikai


Title: First Among Equals
Author: Will Knight
Publication: New Scientist, May 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: New techniques are making the Gnutella file-sharing network flourish, but may be taking away the key benefits of pure peer-to-peer networking.
Subjects: Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: Gnutella, Napster, proxy servers, reflectors, Freenet, file-sharing, Intel, Ian Clark


Title: Computing Power on Tap
Author: Economist Staff
Publication: The Economist
Publication Date: 6/21/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: A look at the most ambitious attempt yet to combine millions of computers seamlessly around the world -- to make processing power available on demand anywhere, rather like electrical power.
Subjects: Collective Computation, P2P
Keywords: Grid, distributing, SETI, Beowulf, middleware, commodity clusters, FightAidsAtHome, Entropia, Parabon, Folding@home, Evolutionary@home, Xpulsar@home, GRAM, GSI, Condor


Title: O'Reilly P2P Directory
Author: Edited and Maintained by Contributing Editor Lisa Rein
Abstract or Excerpt: The O'Reilly P2P directory lists companies, projects and initiatives in this emerging but as yet undefined space.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, P2P, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Swarm Supercomputing, Pervasive Computing,


Title: GAC First Artificial Intelligence to Undergo Formal Human Psychological Evaluation
Author: Chris McKinstry
Publication: Mindpixel
Publication Date: 7/1/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: For the first time a standard psychological test known as the MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) used by clinicians world wide in the evaluation and treatment of adults will be administered to a machine based artificial personality.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation
Keywords: MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory), artificial intelligence, AI, Chris McKinstry, Robert Epstein, GAC (Generic Artificial Consciousness), Mindpixel


Title: MindPixel Slashdot Interview: Collective Supercomputing
Author: Chris McKinstry
Publication Date: 6/17/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: My primary inspiration for the project comes from observation: I observed that computers are stupid and know nothing of human existence. I concluded a very long time ago that either we had to write a "magic" program that was able to go out in the world and learn like a human child, or we just had to sit down and type in ALL the data. When I was studying psychology in the late 80's I wanted to begin to gnaw the bullet and start getting people to type in ALL the data. It was my plan then to get people to enter data as part of an intro psych course, or get the university to allow me ask people for data when they logged on to the university's computer system. I was never able to get permission for either and the idea sat on the shelf until I downloaded my first copy of NCSA's Mosaic in 1994. I saw in following my first hyperlink, a different path.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation
Keywords: Slashdot, Chris McKinstry, Collective Supercomputing, MindPixel Project


Title: United Devices
Abstract or Excerpt: United Devices(tm) is an edge distributed computing software and services company. United Devices' MetaProcessor(tm) platform is an enterprise technology that allows companies to harness the idle resources of their existing computers, either on corporate networks or the Internet. United Devices' customers use the MetaProcessor platform to gain competitive advantage and increase profitability by accelerating mission critical research and business applications in a number of industries, including life sciences, geosciences, manufacturing, and digital media. Individual computer users can download United Devices' free software program (UD Agent) to help build the world's largest computer, one computer at a time. The software program, once installed, runs unobtrusively in the background and works on small workloads that have been divided and distributed to various devices across the Internet. These workloads range in scope from finding a cure for cancer to modeling the climate. United Devices will offer incentives, such as frequent flyer miles and sweepstakes, to individuals who become members and help make the Internet a valuable resource.
Subjects: Collective Computation, P2P
Keywords: Internet distributed computing, United Devices, Citizen Science, Swarm Supercomputing, David Anderson, SETI, SETI@home


Title: My Date with the Gnomes of San Jose: A First Person Account of the First Meeting of the Peer-to-Peer Working Group
Author: Cory Doctorow
Publication: Mindjack Magazine
Publication Date: 10/15/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: A First Person Account of the First Meeting of the Peer-to-Peer Working Group. Turning peer-to-peer computing into P2P implies some common lineage with B2B and B2C. It places peer-to-peer computing squarely in the safe and comprehensible realm of the monetized, commodified Internet of Superbowl ads and Times Square billboards. But peer-to-peer computing isn't a business model, it's a technological one. That's not to say that you can't make money with peer-to-peer technology. (You can. People will. Lots of it.) But peer-to-peer computing isn't a way of making money per se, any more than packet-switching or error-correction is a way of making money.
Subjects: Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: peer-to-peer computing, networks, Intel


Title: Independence Array
Author: Jerome Kuptz
Publication: Wired 8.10
Publication Date: 10/1/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Gnutella: Unstoppable by Design: Any chance of shutting down unauthorized file-sharing ended on March 14, when programmers at AOL's Nullsoft division unleashed their server-less P2P client, Gnutella. AOL yanked the program from Nullsoft's site within hours, but dozens of reverse-engineered replacements have since been posted to the Net, many complete with source code.
Subjects: Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: Gnutella, Napster


Title: The Next Economy Of Ideas: Will copyright survive the Napster bomb?
Author: John Perry Barlow
Publication: Wired 8.10
Publication Date: 10/1/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Will copyright survive the Napster bomb? Nope, but creativity will.
Subjects: Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: Napster, Recording Industry Association of America, DotCommunism, The Grateful Dead, Ethics, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Shawn Fanning, Personal SWOT


Title: Docster: The Future of Document Delivery?
Author: Daniel Chudnov
Publication: Library Journal 125(13) (August 2000): 60-62
Publication Date: 8/1/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: In this provocative piece, Chudnov proposes that libraries modify the Napster model of file sharing for use in interlibrary lending. The main change that Chudnov suggests is to add copyright compliance. But what I find most impressive about this article isn't so much the details as the idea itself. Libraries need imaginative ideas, and this is one.
Subjects: Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: Napster, copyright, library, Napster + libraries = docster, music, ILL, interlibrary loan


Title: A Crisis of Content
Author: Adam Cohen
Publication: Time Inc.. Vol. 156 No. 14, October 2, 2000
Publication Date: 10/2/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: It's not just pop music. Every industry that trades in intellectual property--from publishing to needlework patterns--could get Napsterized.
Subjects: Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: Napster, file sharing, music industry


Title: David Boies: The Wired Interview
Author: John Heilemann
Publication: Wired 8.10
Publication Date: 10/1/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: At first glance, it appears to many onlookers that it is clearly illegal for users to record MP3 files from copyrighted CDs and make them available for dowloading by any Napster user on the planet. But as this interview with the lead defense attorney in the Napster case points out, this is far from an open-and-shut case of copyright infringement.
Subjects: Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: Napster, recording industry, music, David Boies, RIAA, copyright


Title: Nouveau Niche
Author: Mark Frauenfelder
Publication: The Industry Standard Magazine
Publication Date: 10/30/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Meet Cory Doctorow: Disney freak, science-fiction novelist and self-described "happiest geek on Earth." His peer-to-peer dream is to help obscure artists find their audience.
Subjects: Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: OpenCola, Doctorow, science-fiction, Disney, open-source software, file sharing


Title: Internet Computing and the Emerging Grid
Author: Ian Foster
Publication: Nature
Publication Date: 12/7/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Internet computing and Grid technologies promise to change the way we tackle complex problems. They will enable large-scale aggregation and sharing of computational, data and other resources across institutional boundaries. And harnessing these new technologies effectively will transform scientific disciplines ranging from high-energy physics to the life sciences.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: Grid, complex problems, large-scale aggregation, Large Hadron Collider,




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