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Title: Internet Computing and the Emerging Grid
Author: Ian Foster
Publication: Nature
Publication Date: 12/7/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Internet computing and Grid technologies promise to change the way we tackle complex problems. They will enable large-scale aggregation and sharing of computational, data and other resources across institutional boundaries. And harnessing these new technologies effectively will transform scientific disciplines ranging from high-energy physics to the life sciences.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P
Keywords: distributed computing, scientific applications, grid technologies, Miron Livny, Condor system, Scott Kurowski, Entropia network, SETI@home, Globus Toolkit4, I-WAY


Title: CollabNet
Abstract or Excerpt: CollabNet is focused on helping companies that create software improve their bottom line by automating their complex software development processes with Web-based collaborative development solutions.
Subjects: Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: swarm supercomputing, Brian Behlendorf, CollabNet, Enterprise Development Networks, community, open source, SourceCast


Title: The Noisy War Over Napster
Author: Steven Levy
Publication: Newsweek
Publication Date: 6/5/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Napster is or at least was, the world's leading file sharing community. Napster's software application enables users to locate and share media files from one convenient, easy-to-use interface. It also provides media fans a forum to communicate their interests and tastes with one another via instant messaging, chat rooms, and Hot List user bookmarks.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: Napster, Gnutella, Freenet, file sharing, Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), Metallica, copyright infringement


Title: I.B.M. Making a Commitment to Next Phase of the Internet
Author: Steve Lohr
Publication: New York Times
Publication Date: 8/2/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: I.B.M. is announcing today a new initiative to support and exploit a technology known as grid computing, which the company and much of the computer research community say is the next evolutionary step in the development of the Internet.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation
Keywords: SETI, IBM, grid computing, distributed computing, Globus project, open-source model, Licklider


Title: IBM to Build Computing Power Grid
Author: Jim Krane, AP Technology Writer
Publication: The Daily Camera
Publication Date: 8/2/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: IBM is betting that computing power will evolve into a simple utility - like electricity - with users buying what they need from a computing grid instead of owning large computers themselves. To capitalize, IBM is investing $4 billion to build 50 computer server farms around the world, said Irving Wladawsky-Berger, a vice president at IBM's Server Group.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation
Keywords: grid computing, swarm computing, IBM, open-source, Globus Toolkit, Supercomputers, Globus, SETI


Title: Listening to Napster
Author: Clay Shirky
Publication: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, Andy Oram (Editor), O'Reilly & Associates, 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: What makes Napster and Popular Power and Freenet and AIMster and Groove similar is that they are all leveraging previously unused resources, by tolerating and even working with variable connectivity. This lets them make new, powerful use of the hundreds of millions of devices that have been connected to the edges of the Internet in the last few years.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P, Reputation Systems, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Napster,


Title: Remaking the Peer-to-Peer Meme
Author: Tim O'Reilly
Publication: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, Andy Oram (Editor), O'Reilly & Associates, 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Already, startups like Mojo Nation (http://www.mojonation.net) are making a link between file sharing and distributed computation. To this day, there is a strong peer-to-peer element at the very heart of the Web's architecture: the hyperlink. A web hyperlink can point to any other site on the network, without any central intervention, and without the permission of the site being pointed to. What's more, hyperlinks can point to a variety of resources, not just web pages. Part of the Web's explosive growth, as compared to other early Internet information services, was that the web browser became a kind of universal client that was able to link to any kind of Internet resource.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P, Reputation Systems, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: writable Web, Mojo Nation, distributed computation


Title: The Cornucopia of the Commons
Author: Dan Bricklin
Publication: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, Andy Oram (Editor), O'Reilly & Associates, 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The genius of Napster is that increasing the value of the database by adding more information is a natural by-product of each person using the tool for his or her own benefit. No altruistic sharing motives need be present, especially since sharing is the default. It isn't even like the old song about "leaving a cup with water by the pump to let the next person have something to prime it with." (I'll have to use Napster to find that song....) In other words, nobody has to think of being nice to the next guy or put in even a tiny bit of extra effort. We've heard plenty about the tragedy of the commons - in fact, it pops up in several other chapters of this book. In the 1968 essay that popularized the concept, "The Tragedy of the Commons," Garrett Hardin wrote: "Therein is the tragedy. Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit - in a world that is limited. Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons. Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all."
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P, Reputation Systems, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Napster, Garrett Hardin, The Tragedy of the Commons


Title: SETI@home
Author: David Anderson
Publication: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, Andy Oram (Editor), O'Reilly & Associates, 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: SETI@home is faster than ASCI White, at less than 1% of the cost. The FFT computations for each SETI@home work unit require 3.1 trillion floating-point operations. In a typical day, SETI@home clients process about 700,000 work units. This works out to over 20 TFLOPS. It has cost about $500,000 plus another $200,000 or so in donated hardware, to develop SETI@home and operate it for a year. Of course, the cost of the one million PCs running SETI@home greatly exceeds that of ASCI White - but these PCs were bought and paid for before SETI@home and would exist even without it. As of October 2000, SETI@home has received 200 million results, for a total of 4 x 10 20 floating-point operations. We believe that this is the largest computation ever performed. And in terms of the potential of the Internet for scientific computing, SETI@home is the tip of the iceberg. There are projected to be one billion Internet-connected computers by 2003. If 10% of them participate in distributed computing projects, there will be enough computing power for 100 projects the size of SETI@home.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P, Reputation Systems, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: SETI@home, SETI,


Title: Jabber: Conversational Technologies
Author: Jeremie Miller
Publication: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, Andy Oram (Editor), O'Reilly & Associates, 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The World Wide Web was designed originally as an interactive world of information through which people could communicate with each other and with machines (http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/1996/ppf.html). I had (and still have) a dream that the web could be less of a television channel and more of an interactive sea of shared knowledge. I imagine it immersing us as a warm, friendly environment made of the things we and our friends have seen, heard, believe or have figured out. I would like it bring our friends and colleagues closer, in that by working on this knowledge together we can come to better understandings (http://www.w3.org/Talks/9510_Bush/Talk.html). So where did it go wrong in this respect?
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P, Reputation Systems, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Roster, Jabber, Conversational Technologies


Title: Gnutella
Author: Gene Kan
Publication: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, Andy Oram (Editor), O'Reilly & Associates, 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Roughly, Gnutella is an Internet potluck party. The virtual world's equivalents of biscuits and cheese are CPU power, network capacity, and disk space. Add a few MP3s and MPEGs and the potluck becomes a kegger. In fact, Gnutella is a language of communication, a protocol. Gnutella was born sometime in early March 2000. Justin Frankel and Tom Pepper, working under the dot-com pen name of Gnullsoft, are Gnutella's inventors. Their last life-changing product, Winamp, was the beginning of a company called Nullsoft, which was purchased by American Online (AOL) in 1999. Winamp was developed primarily to play digital music files. According to Tom Pepper, Gnutella was developed primarily to share recipes.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Gnutella, Freenet


Title: Freenet
Author: Adam Langley
Publication: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, Andy Oram (Editor), O'Reilly & Associates, 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: In the United States there are essentially no laws protecting privacy online or requiring companies to handle information about people responsibly. Therefore, these companies are more or less free to do what they wish with the data. We hope Freenet will solve some of these problems. Freenet consists of nodes that pass messages to each other. A node is simply a computer that is running the Freenet software, and all nodes are treated as equals by the network. This removes any single point of failure or control. By following the Freenet protocol, many such nodes spontaneously organize themselves into an efficient network.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P, Reputation Systems, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Freenet,


Title: Red Rover: A Distributed Anti-censorship Strategy
Author: Alan Brown
Publication: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, Andy Oram (Editor), O'Reilly & Associates, 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Red Rover is designed to keep a channel of information open to those behind censorship walls by exploiting some now mundane features of the Internet, such as dynamic IP addresses and the unbalanced ratio of Red Rover clients to censors. Operating out in the open at a low-tech level helps keep Red Rover's benefactors from appearing suspicious. In fact, Red Rover makes use of aspects of the current Internet that other projects consider liabilities, such as the impermanent connections of ordinary Internet users and the widespread use of free, web-based email services. The benefactors, those behind the censorship barrier (hereafter, "subscribers"), never even need to see a Red Rover client application: users of the client are in other countries. The clients are free software applications that are run on computers around the world by ordinary, dial-up Internet users who volunteer to devote a bit of their system usage to Red Rover.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P, Reputation Systems, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Red Rover, Anti-censorship,


Title: Publius
Author: Marc Waldman, Lorrie Faith Cranor, and Avi Rubin
Publication: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, Andy Oram (Editor), O'Reilly & Associates, 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Publius is a web-based publishing system that resists censorship and tampering. A file published with Publius is replicated across many servers, making it very hard for any individual or organized group to destroy the document. Distributing the document also provides resistance to so-called distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, which have been used in highly publicized incidents to make a resource unavailable. Another key feature of Publius is that it allows an individual to publish a document without providing information that links the document to any particular computer. Therefore, the publisher of a document can remain anonymous.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P, Reputation Systems, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Publius, Federalist Papers, censorship-resistant,


Title: Performance
Author: Theodore Hong
Publication: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, Andy Oram (Editor), O'Reilly & Associates, 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: In 1967, Harvard professor Stanley Milgram mailed 160 letters to a set of randomly chosen people living in Omaha, Nebraska. He asked them to participate in an unusual social experiment in which they were to try to pass these letters to a given target person, a stockbroker working in Boston, Massachusetts, using only intermediaries known to one another on a first-name basis. That is, each person would pass her letter to a friend whom she thought might bring the letter closest to the target; the friend would then pass it on to another friend. and so on until the letter reached someone who knew the target personally and could give it to him. For example, an engineer in Omaha, on receiving the letter, passed it to a transplanted New Englander living in Bellevue, Nebraska, who passed it to a math teacher in Litttleton, Massachusetts, who passed it to a school principal in a Boston suburb, who passed it to a local storekeeper, who gave it to a surprised stockbroker. In all, 42 letters made it through, via a median number of just 5.5 intermediaries. Such a surprisingly low number, compared to the then-U.S. population of 200 million, demonstrated concretely for the first time what has become popularly known as the small-world effect. This phenomenon is familiar to anyone who has exclaimed "Small world, isn't it!" upon discovering a mutual acquaintance shared with a stranger. Milgram's experiment was designed to explore the properties of social networks: the interconnecting bonds of friendship among individuals in a society. One way we can think about social networks is to use the mathematical discipline of graph theory.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P, Reputation Systems, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Stanley Milgram, social networks, graph theory


Title: Afterword
Author: Andy Oram
Publication: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, Andy Oram (Editor), O'Reilly & Associates, 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Peer-to-peer, like all technologies, embodies certain assumptions about people and future directions for technology. It so happens that peer-to-peer is moving the compass of information use in a direction that directly contradicts the carefully mapped-out plans drawn by some large corporate and government players.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, P2P, Reputation Systems, Ubiquitous Computing


Title: Profit from peer-to-peer
Author: Report: Computer Networks
Publication: The Economist
Publication Date: 6/21/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Despite Napster's continuing travails, a number of fledgling firms are out to sell the idea of peer-to-peer computing to large enterprises.
Subjects: Collective Computation, P2P
Keywords: Napster, peer-to-peer, profit, Shawn Fanning, Groove, intensional networks


Title: Study: Music downloading rises in August
Author: Reuters
Publication: CNN
Publication Date: 9/20/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Free music downloading is hotter than ever, said researchers on Thursday who found more than 3 billion files were downloaded on four leading file-swapping services in August, topping Napster at its peak.
Subjects: Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: FastTrack, Audiogalaxy, iMesh, Gnutella, Napster


Title: NSF Announces Plan For Universities To Create Global Data Grid
Publication Date: 9/25/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Scientists at 40 universities and research institutions on four continents will get access to more computing power than currently available at the world's top research centers under an ambitious initiative led by the University of Florida.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET)
Keywords: NSF, National Data Grid, computing power, International Virtual Data Grid Laboratory, iVDGL, grid, Grid Physics Network, Particle Physics Data Grid, Paul Avery


Title: The crime of distributed computing
Author: Ann Harrison
Publication: The Register
Publication Date: 12/20/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: A college computer technician who offered his school's unused computer processing power for an encryption research project will be tried next month in Georgia for computer theft and trespassing charges that carry a potential total of 120 years in jail. The closely-watched case if one of the first in which state prosecutors have lodged felony charges for allegedly downloading third-party software without permission.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, P2P
Keywords: distributed computing,


Title: Criminal Charges Settled In Distributed-Computing Case
Author: Steven Bonisteel
Publication: Washington Post.com
Publication Date: 1/17/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: A computer technician at Georgia-run college who found himself facing criminal charges after installing software for a volunteer distributed-computing effort will face probation instead of prison.
Subjects: Collective Computation, P2P
Keywords: distributed-computing, David McOwen, DeKalb Technical College, Distributed.net


Title: Notes on the "Worm" Programs -- Some Early Experience with a Distributed Computation
Author: John F. Shoch and Jon A. Hupp
Publication: Xerox PARC
Publication Date: 9/1980
Abstract or Excerpt: The "Worm" programs were an experiment in the development of distributed computations -- programs that would span machine boundaries, and also replicate themselves in idle machines. A "worm" is composed of multiple "segments" each running on a different machine. The underlying worm maintenance mechanisms were responsible for maintaining the worm -- finding free machines when needed, and replicating the program for each additional segment. The worm control procedures require some careful design, but this mechanism made each worm a very dynamic and robust program.


Title: Distributed Computation Via Active Messages
Author: Miron Livny and Udi Manber
Publication: IEEE Transactions on Computers 34(12), 1985, 1185-1190


Title: Deepest Computation in History for a Yes/No Answer
Publication: Technical News Release
Publication Date: 9/29/1999
Abstract or Excerpt: What is believed to be the deepest computation -- for a simple "yes/no" or "1-bit" answer -- in history has just been completed by a team of three investigators: Ernst Mayer formerly of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio; Jason Papadopoulos of the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland; and Richard Crandall of the Center for Advanced Computation, Reed College, Portland, Oregon.


Title: GIMPS Finds First Million-Digit Prime, Stakes Claim to $50,000 EFF Award
Publication Date: 6/30/1999
Abstract or Excerpt: Nayan Hajratwala, a participant in the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search (GIMPS), has discovered the first known million-digit prime number using software written by George Woltman and the distributed computing technology and services of Scott Kurowski's company, Entropia.com, Inc. The prime number, 26,972,593-1, contains 2,098,960 digits qualifying for the $50,000 award offered by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF). An article is being submitted to an academic journal for consideration.


Title: Anthrax Screensaver Finds Promising New Drugs
Author: Paul Marks
Publication: NewScientist.com
Publication Date: 2/19/2002
Abstract or Excerpt: A screensaver designed to find promising new drugs for treating anthrax has hit paydirt in just four weeks. The Oxford University team behind the program say the 1.35 million personal computer users who have been running their screensaver finished crunching through 3.5 billion possible anthrax-treating compounds on 16 February.


Title: The Digital Century
Author: Harry McCracken
Publication: PC World
Publication Date: 12/1999
Abstract or Excerpt: We remember 100 computing events (crucial, improbable, or downright absurd) that changed our lives, opened our eyes, or made us smile.


Title: Technology: Copyright Laws at Stake in Napster Case
Author: Ron Harris
Publication: The Nando Times
Publication Date: 3/2/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: It was time to face the music for online song-swapping service Napster Inc., which returned to court Friday in the landmark copyright infringement lawsuit brought by the recording industry.


Title: Napster Serenades Songwriters, Ready to End Lawsuit
Author: Ashlee Vance
Publication: Unlimited Net
Publication Date: 9/26/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Struggling online music distributor Napster has signed a preliminary agreement with a group representing US songwriters and music publishers that should end some litigation pending against it and provide songwriters with a cut of Napster's revenue when it launches a fee-based service later this year.


Title: Napster Offers $1 Billion to Settle Suit
Publication: CNN.com
Publication Date: 2/21/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Acting on the eve of the Grammy awards, Napster Inc. offered $1 billion Tuesday to the recording industry to settle a copyright infringement lawsuit.




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