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Title: Client As Server: The New Model
Author: David E. Weekly
Publication: Freshmeat.net
Publication Date: 4/16/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: A new model is emerging from the Internet. It represents the culmination of years of incremental evolution in the structure of the network and the clients that feed upon it. It is based upon the same principles upon which the Internet was founded. It is this: the client is the server.


Title: The Grid Draws Its Battle Lines
Author: Michelle Delio
Publication: Wired News
Publication Date: 2/20/2002
Abstract or Excerpt: Connected computers will be the battleground where the benefits and shortcomings of open source and proprietary software development are finally revealed, according to developers from both camps.


Title: IBM Making a Commitment to Next Phase of the Internet
Author: Steve Lohr
Publication: The New York Times
Publication Date: 8/2/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: I.B.M. is announcing today a new initiative to support and exploit a technology known as grid computing, which the company and much of the computer research community say is the next evolutionary step in the development of the Internet.


Title: SETI@home and The Planetary Society: A Reminiscence and a Hope for the Future
Author: Charlene Anderson
Publication Date: 5/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: The idea for SETI@home, as the project was called, came in 1996 from computer scientist David Gedye, along with Craig Kasnoff and astronomer Woody Sullivan. They formed the initial project team and started to develop the software. Eventually, David Anderson from the Berkeley computer sciences department took over as project director, and Dan Werthimer in the Space Sciences Lab became project scientist.


Title: SETI@home Stats
Publication: Roving Mouse
Abstract or Excerpt: At any given moment, 406 thousand machines are working fulltime on the problem (CPU hours/hour). Results are being returned at a rate of 829 thousand WUs/day (nineteen trillion calculations per second, roughly equivalent to a 140-teraHz super-computer). This is about 375% of realtime (assuming 6912/125Gb/day recorded).


Title: Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny
Author: Robert Wright
Publication: New York: Vintage, 2000


Title: That Sneaky Exponential-Beyond Metcalfe's Law to the Power of Community Building
Author: David P. Reed
Publication: Context Magazine
Publication Date: Spring 1999
Abstract or Excerpt: While many kinds of value grow proportionally to network size and some grow proportionally to the square of network size, I've discovered that some network structures create total value that can scale even faster than that. Networks that support the construction of communicating groups create value that scales exponentially with network size, i.e. much more rapidly than Metcalfe's square law. I will call such networks Group-Forming Networks, or GFNs.
Subjects: Cooperation
Keywords: value, networks, groups, Group-Forming Networks, eBay, network theory, Metcalfe's Law, Sarnoff's Law, Reed's Law


Title: Distributed Computing for Global Climate Research at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Abstract or Excerpt: Climate dynamics research at RAL focuses on the use of global observing systems to study the climate system as a single entity. We are specifically interested in the use of observational data to evaluate climate models and diagnose the most serious faults in model-simulated mean climate, internal climate variability and natural and anthropogenic climate change. This work falls into two areas: general development of statistical tools applicable to all model-data comparison problems, stressing the quantitative treatment of uncertainty; and studies of the ocean-atmosphere interface and near-surface ocean using remote sensing data. One of the key activities of the group is the annual Oxford/RAL Spring School in Quantitative Earth Observation.


Title: The United Devices Cancer Research Program
Abstract or Excerpt: The United Devices cancer research program was developed to aid the search for new drugs to treat leukemia and other cancers. United Devices Inc. developed this program in conjunction with the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR) and the University of Oxford.


Title: Google Compute
Abstract or Excerpt: Google Compute is a new feature of the Google Toolbar. The goal of Google Compute is to make a contribution to science by enabling Google Toolbar users to easily donate their idle computer time to worthwhile causes. The Google Compute version of the Google Toolbar detects when a computer is idle and puts it to work on complex mathematical problem from such fields as drug design and global climate modeling.


Title: With Napster Down, Its Audience Fans Out
Author: Matt Richtel
Publication: The New York Times
Publication Date: 7/20/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The record industry's largely successful effort to cripple Napster, the online music site turned social phenomenon, has left it facing something potentially worse: a new generation of music-swapping sites, more numerous and much harder to police.


Title: With Napster Down, Its Audience Fans Out
Author: Matt Richtel
Publication: The New York Times
Publication Date: 7/20/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The record industry's largely successful effort to cripple Napster, the online music site turned social phenomenon, has left it facing something potentially worse: a new generation of music-swapping sites, more numerous and much harder to police.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P
Keywords: Napster, Recording Industry Association of America, Fast Track software, online music


Title: The Cornucopia of the Commons
Author: Dan Bricklin
Publication: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, ed. Andy Oram (Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly and Associates, Inc., 2001)


Title: What is Gnutella?
Publication: Gnutella News
Abstract or Excerpt: Gnutella News offers the latest news and information about Gnutella and other file-sharing networks. Informing the file-sharing community since April 2000.


Title: Nullsoft Inc.


Title: Gnutella and the Transient Web
Author: Kelly Truelove
Publication: OpenP2P.com
Publication Date: 3/22/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The Web was born in a research environment of always-on, permanently connected computers that could just as easily support Web publishing as they could facilitate Web browsing. During the subsequent popularization of the Web, consumer PCs and other devices that are transiently connected to the Internet became prevalent. These transient devices, which came and went unpredictably and held dynamically assigned Internet addresses, broke the Web's symmetry, because they were only effective at browsing.


Title: Gnutella and the Transient Web
Author: Kelly Truelove
Publication: OpenP2P.com
Publication Date: 3/22/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: To the lament of Tim Berners-Lee and other Web pioneers, the Web became more of a one-to-many medium than the many-to-many communication system originally envisioned. The Gnutella protocol restores the Web's original symmetry, enabling even transient computers to effectively participate as servers. It's far from a complete solution, and alternative systems may eclipse it. Nonetheless, this simple and idiosyncratic protocol is currently in the vanguard of the emergence of the transient Web. The transient Web has the potential to be every bit as disruptive as the conventional "permanent" Web, and possibly more so.
Subjects: Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P
Keywords: Gnutella, transient, Transient Web, Permanent Web, anonymity, many-to-many communication


Title: Mojo Nation
Abstract or Excerpt: What is Mojo Nation? Mojo Nation is an open-source peer-to-peer content sharing system that is used to share digital content. The swarm distribution technology enables the effective aggregation of lower bandwidth/dialup peers to deliver rich digital content.


Title: Mojo Nation
Author: Jim McCoy
Publication Date: 1/1/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Mojo Nation is a revolutionary new peer-driven content distribution technology. While simple data distribution architectures like Napster or Gnutella may be sufficient to allow users to trade mp3 files they are unable to scale up to deliver rich-media content while still taking advantages of the cost savings of peer-to-peer systems. Mojo Nation combines the flexibility of the marketplace with a secure "swarm distribution" mechanism to go far beyond any current filesharing system -- providing high-speed downloads that run from multiple peers in parallel. The Mojo Nation technology is an efficient, massively scalable and secure toolkit for distributors and consumers of digital content.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, P2P, Privacy, Reputation Systems
Keywords: peer-to-peer, Gnutella, Swarm Distribution, Freeriding, Mojo Nation, cryptography, file-sharing architectures, Tragedy of the Commons, Garrett Hardin, Napster, agoric resource allocation system


Title: The Taste Test
Author: Steven Johnson
Publication: Feed
Publication Date: 5/8/2001


Title: eBusiness Conference Expo
Author: Lou Gerstner
Publication Date: 12/12/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Lou Gerstner, chairman and CEO of IBM, addressed the eBusiness Conference Expo in New York City Dec. 12, 2000. He spoke on trends of the next generation of e-business.


Title: The Future of Ideas
Author: Lawrence Lessig
Publication: New York: Random House, 2001


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