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Title: Dust bugs
Author: Duncan Graham-Rowe
Publication: New Scientist
Publication Date: 8/28/1999
Abstract or Excerpt: Cleanliness Freaks have a new rationale for their pathological hatred of dust--it could soon be spying on them. Packed full of sensors, lasers and communications transceivers, particles of "smart dust" are being designed to communicate with one another. They could be used for a range of applications from weather monitoring to spying have already shown that they can monitor the dust 21 kilometres across San Francisco Bay.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Emerging Technologies (ET), Privacy, Surveillance, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: MEMS, nanotech, smart-dust, sensors, lasers, motes, swarm behaviour

Title: P2PTracker "A Guide to the Next Net"
Author: Terry Hostetler and Matt Lindenburg
Publication Date: 1/1/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: P2P Portal containing the usual portal content: news and commentary, analysis, company profiles and other research, guest columns, links, forums. Who are the players and who are the pretenders? What technologies have the best potential? What areas of P2P have the highest likelihood of succeeding? These are the questions that P2Ptracker hopes to answer. It is a site for those who want the straight information from informed sources. Not just links or a web log. A place where P2P professionals can stay in touch with their community and competition.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), P2P, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: networking, file-swapping, file sharing

Title: What is the WIZ project? Opening statements
Author: Steve Bush
Publication Date: 4/1/1999
Abstract or Excerpt: Proposes an entirely new architecture for computing, from hardware to network, that simplifies everything. Calls for small interoperational brains (WIZes) that are in all objects that can talk to each other. Seems to have a strong background in computers, but thinks that a paradigm shift is necessary for the industry to continue growth. The WIZ is my vision of the future. It starts with the creation of a new race of creatures, little guys I call WIZes. And it follows through with how they will change the way the Human race relates to the material universe and to each other.
Subjects: Collective Computation, Emerging Technologies (ET), Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: WIZ, network, paradigm, computation, vision

Title: Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS)
Abstract or Excerpt: The Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS) will create information technology to tackle society's most critical needs. CITRIS research will focus initially on the areas of energy efficiency, transportation, seismic safety, education, health care, and environmental monitoring.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Handhelds, Mobile Phones, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: Governor Gray Davis, CITRIS, Societal-scale Information Systems (SISs), sensors

Title: Connected: Life in the Wireless Age
Author: James Gleick
Publication: New York Times Magazine
Publication Date: 4/22/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: As technology-wireless and otherwise invades our lives, how will that change us? This article is one journalist's look at what 'pervasive computing' will mean for all of us.
Subjects: Cooperation, Emerging Technologies (ET), Handhelds, Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Mobile Phones, Sociology, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: Pervasive Computing, Bluetooth, Helga, IBM, digital jewelry, network, connected, Wi-Fi, GPS, ad hoc scatternets, Palm Pilot

Title: The Semantic Web
Author: Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler and Ora Lassila
Publication: Scientific American, May 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Article by web inventor discussing the future of hypertext and the web. With integration of XML, RDF, and Ontologies. It will allow for semantic markup of documents, so that concepts can be searched for and agents can seek out meaningful information in documents for users.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Handhelds, Mobile Phones, P2P, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: semantic web, XML, machine readable, knowledge, agents, content, ontologies

Title: Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces between People, Bits and Atoms
Author: Hiroshi Ishii and Brygg Ullmer
Publication: Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '97), ACM, Atlanta, March 1997, pp. 234-241
Abstract or Excerpt: This paper presents our vision of Human Computer Interaction (HCI): "Tangible Bits." Tangible Bits allows users to "grasp & manipulate" bits in the center of users' attention by coupling the bits with everyday physical objects and architectural surfaces. Tangible Bits also enables users to be aware of background bits at the periphery of human perception using ambient display media such as light, sound, airflow, and water movement in an augmented space. The goal of Tangible Bits is to bridge the gaps between both cyberspace and the physical environment, as well as the foreground and background of human activities.
Keywords: tangible user interface, ambient media, graspable user interface, augmented reality, Tangible Bits, interactive surfaces, metaDESK, transBOARD, ambientROOM, Phicons, RFID

Title: Location-Based Computing: Wherever You Go, There You Are
Author: Kevin Werbach
Publication: Release 1.0 (Esther Dyson's Monthly Report), Volume 18, No. 6
Publication Date: 6/28/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Computers have traditionally lacked the ability to influence and be influenced by the surrounding environment. With the growth of location-sensitive services and applications, the physical and the virtual are merging. Location-based computing is becoming real thanks to advances in mobile devices, wireless connectivity and position-detection technologies. In this issue, we examine several developments in this area, including mobile city guides; global positioning system (GPS) and wireless phone triangulation technologies; location-based e-commerce; and context-sensitive applications for cars, vending machines and elsewhere.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Mobile Phones, SMS, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: pervasive computing, mobile commerce, E911, context sensitive technologies, wearable computing, smart card, m-commerce

Title: Philips Research and AVIR-partners demonstrate new technologies for personal TV
Author: Philips Research
Publication: Press Release
Publication Date: 9/1/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Philips Research and its partners in the ESPRIT* project AVIR** have developed new technologies which increase the application potential of Personal TV.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: digital television, AVIR, automatic content analysis, Personal TV, MPEG-7, DVB-MHP, speech recognition

Title: MIT Auto-ID Center
Author: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Abstract or Excerpt: The Auto-ID Center's mission is to merge the physical world with the information world - to bring bits and atoms together to form one seamless network, using the very latest advances in technologies including, electromagnetic identification, computer modelling, and networking. The Center is funded by forward-looking global businesses from many different industry sectors, all of which share a single vision of a smarter, brighter and less wasteful future. It is headquartered at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, one of the world's foremost scientific institutions.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Privacy, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: Electronic Product Code, MIT, bar code, Universal Product Code (UPC)

Title: Jun Rekimoto, Director, Interaction Laboratory, Sony Computer Science Laboratories, Inc.
Publication: Sony Computer Science Laboratories
Abstract or Excerpt: I am interested in designing a new human computer interaction style for highly portable computers, that will be situation-aware and assistance-oriented rather than command oriented. Using this style, a user will be able to interact the real world that is augmented by the computer's synthetic information. The user's situation will be automatically recognized by applying a range of recognition methods, allowing the computer to assist the user without having to be directly instructed by the user. Before the end of the decade, I expect that such computers will be as commonplace as today's Walkmans, electronic hearing aids, eyeglasses, and wristwatches.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: Interaction Laboratory, Sony Computer Science Laboratories, human computer interaction, situation-aware, Pervasive Computing, Jun Rekimoto, Context-Aware, Augmented Reality, NaviCam

Abstract or Excerpt: The basic concept of is to integrate online communication with street communication by tagging all products, art and text with numbered codes. These numbered codes are email addresses on We do this to link people together worldwide, to build an open network for participate both offline and online.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: Pervasive Computation, product codes

Title: Cooltown
Publication: Hewlitt-Packard
Abstract or Excerpt: Cooltown represents HP's vision of the future, a world where everyone and everything is connected to the Web through wired or wireless links. Cooltown is built on the belief that this paradigm of mobility will change the way companies do business locally and globally, as well as the way individuals live their lives.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Handhelds, Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Mobile Phones, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: CoolTown

Title: Echelon Corporation
Abstract or Excerpt: Echelon Corporation is the creator of the LonWorks platform, the world's most widely used standard for connecting everyday devices such as appliances, thermostats, air conditioners, electric meters, and lighting systems to each other and to the Internet. Echelon's hardware and software products enable manufacturers and integrators to create smart devices and systems that lower cost, increase convenience, improve service, and enhance productivity, quality, and safety. Thousands of companies have developed and installed more than 16 million LonWorks based devices into Coachs, buildings, factories, trains, and other systems worldwide.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: interoperability, LonWorks, networks

Title: Packages that communicate could be the ultimate in direct advertising
Author: Adam Geller
Publication: Associated Press
Publication Date: 3/26/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: What if the next time you walked into a music store, a compact disc sang to you? Or you reached for some beauty cream at the department store and the package began to glow, enticing you with a tiny video invitation to rediscover lost youth? Wouldn't you at least stop and think about buying those products? International Paper Co. is betting you would.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: smart tags, smart packaging, International Paper Co., consumer

Title: Aiming at your Wallet
Author: Shelley Emling
Publication: Marin Independent Journal
Publication Date: 4/28/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: M-commerce mobile shopping wants to convert passers-by into shoppers.
Subjects: Mobile Phones, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: pervasive computing, mobile shopping, M-commerce, shopping, Streetbeam

Title: The End of the Web as We Know It
Author: Michael Pastore
Publication Date: 5/17/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Less than 60 percent of the households in the United States, the world's most wired country, have Internet access, but already the CEO of Forrester Research is predicting the death of the World Wide Web and the dawn of a new, application-based Internet.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: X Internet, Forrester, executable Net, Extended Internet devices

Title: Big Blue's Big Brother Lab
Author: Elisa Batista
Publication: Wired News
Publication Date: 4/24/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Imagine living in a world with sensors inserted everywhere, including sunglasses, so any time you meet new people their names appear before your eyes.
Subjects: Mobile Phones, Privacy, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: IBM, sensors, Almaden Research Center, Pervasive Computing, Vision Pad Identifier, BlueBoard

Title: Everywhere Messaging
Author: C. Schmandt, N. Marmasse, S. Marti, N. Sawhney, and S. Wheeler (2000)
Publication: IBM Systems Journal, 39, 3&4, 660-677
Abstract or Excerpt: By "everywhere messaging" we refer to the ability to send and receive electronic communication at any time and through a variety of means, including wired and wireless computer networks, voice telephones, and pagers. Our goal is to design messaging systems in which the receiver is always "on" and available, and messages are correctly chosen for unintrusive delivery. But even in the office, and especially out of it, message arrival must compete in the real world with other activities that place demands on users' cognition and for which message alerting may itself be a distraction. In this paper we consider four experimental projects in terms of their ability to meet everywhere messaging requirements of minimizing interruption, adaptation to the user, location awareness, and unintrusive user interfaces. These projects demonstrate message filtering, location-specific delivery, flexible auditory alerting, and operation in, and monitoring of, a heterogenous networking environment.
Subjects: Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Pervasive Computing, everywhere messaging,

Title: People, Places, Things: Web Presence for the Real World
Author: Tim Kindberg, John Barton, Jeff Morgan et al.
Publication: CoolTown White Paper
Abstract or Excerpt: The convergence of Web technology, wireless networks and portable client devices provides new design opportunities for computer/communications systems. In the HP Labs "Cooltown" project we have been exploring these opportunities through an infrastructure to support "web presence" for people, places and things. We put web servers into things like printers and put information into web servers about things like artwork; we group physically related things into places embodied in web servers. Using URLs for addressing, physical URL beaconing and sensing of URLs for discovery, and localized web servers for directories, we can create a location-aware but ubiquitious systems to support nomadic users. On top of this infrastructure we can leverage the Internet connectivity to support communications services. Web presence bridges the World Wide Web and the physical world we inhabit, providing a model for supporting nomadic users without a central control point.
Subjects: Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: web presence, web servers, beaconing and sensing, nomadic users, nomadicity, smart environments, convergence, Cooltown, HP Labs

Title: Creating Web Representations for Places
Author: Deborah Caswell and Philippe Debaty
Publication: Internet & Mobile Systems Lab, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories
Abstract or Excerpt: This paper describes our experience with building a general place manager infrastructure useful for creating web representations for physical places. Although we leverage a general web presence architecture for building all different types of web presence, this paper focuses on the specific needs for building web representations for places.
Subjects: Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: places, context manager, Cooltown, web appliances

Title: Semantic Location
Author: Salil Pradhan
Publication: CoolTown White Paper
Abstract or Excerpt: Mobile web-services often use location information for service customization. Most such services operate on the user's physical/geographical location. Unfortunately, such common forms of location carry little context information. In the CoolTown project at HP labs, we have addressed this deficiency by defined an orthogonal form of location - Semantic location. Use of this form of location can also help lower the risk of invasion of privacy.
Subjects: Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Privacy, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: semantic location, semantic web, Pervasive Computing, location awareness, CoolTown, beacons, barcodes, nomadic users

Title: A Web-Based Nomadic Computing System
Author: Tim Kindberg and John Barton
Publication: CoolTown Internet and Mobile Systems Laboratory Whitepaper
Abstract or Excerpt: CoolTown offers a web model for supporting nomadic users, based on the convergence of web technology, wireless networks and portable devices. This paper describes how CoolTown ties web resources to physical objects and places, and how users interact with resources using the information appliances they carry, from laptops to smart watches. Enabling the automatic discovery of URLs from our physical surroundings, and using localized web servers for directories, we create location-aware but ubiquitous systems. On top of this infrastructure we leverage device connectivity to support communication services.
Subjects: Mobile Phones, Privacy, Surveillance, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: nomadic computing, Pervasive Computing, social networks, pervasive nomadic computing, locality, web presence, sensing, defining a place, URL sensing, clipboards, active badge systems

Title: Be Prepared for The 'Hypernet'
Author: Don Tapscott
Publication: Computerworld Inc.
Publication Date: 7/16/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Hitachi's remarkable new Mew chip is just another example that we're "on the second half of the chessboard" - a phrase coined by the brilliant inventor and author Ray Kurzweil to describe the pace of today's technological advances. The chip measures less than half a millimeter per side and includes 128 bits of read-only memory and radio-frequency wireless circuitry that can transmit up to a foot away. One of myriad possible uses for the tiny chip (many of which are chilling from a privacy perspective) is to weave it into paper money, which would allow authorities to track the movement of cash and immediately detect counterfeit bills.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: RFID, Pervasive Computing, Mew chip, Hypernet

Title: Sun Microsystems' Predictions for Jxta System Sound Familiar
Author: Lee Gomes
Publication: Wall Street Journal
Publication Date: 6/4/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Jini is the software system introduced with great fanfare by Sun in 1999 and billed as a means to allow consumer devices to communicate in important new ways. Sun promised that within months, Jini cameras, printers and even household appliances from scores of manufacturers would start appearing, and that soon after that would be found just about everywhere.
Subjects: P2P, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Jini, Jxta, Pervasive Computing, Device to Device Communication, Sun Microsystems Inc., Bill Joy

Title: Just Say Nokia
Author: Steve Silberman
Publication: Wired 7.09 - Sep 1999
Publication Date: 9/1/1999
Abstract or Excerpt: In the northern skunk works called Finland, the 21st century is in beta: It's a call-anytime, roam-anywhere, use-any-protocol k�nnykk� world.
Subjects: Handhelds, Helsinki, Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Mobile Phones, SMS, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: Finland, Nokia, Risto Linturi, Pervasive Computing, k�nnykk�, k�nny, Ericsson, practical telepathy, WapIT, third-generation wireless, 3G, personal bubble, augmented reality, global datasphere, GPS, memory prosthesis

Title: Radio frequency identification (RFID) Homepage
Author: AIM
Abstract or Excerpt: This site is the home for information on RFID technologies. Sponsored by AIM, the global trade association for the Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) industry.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: RFID tags, Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC), AIM, automated data collection, identification,

Title: Context-Sensitive eCommerce
Author: Kelly L. Dempski
Publication: 2000 Conference on Human Factors in Computer Systems (CHI 2000) Extended Abstracts, 1-6 April 2000, The Hague
Abstract or Excerpt: Physical commerce has existed for thousands of years. Although the Internet is a relatively recent phenomenon, electronic commerce conducted over the Internet represents an increasing proportion of all commercial transactions. We believe that the most significant benefits to commerce can be realized through augmented commerce, a combination of the best of physical and electronic commerce worlds. In particular, we believe that ideas from the area of augmented reality, involving see-through head-mounted displays, can provide considerably more context in purchasing decisions than is possible using a desktop browser. This richer context enables more informed decisions and will lead to significantly greater levels of online transactions. This paper proposes an alternative presentation that uses Augmented Reality (AR) technologies to bring virtual products into the consumer's physical context. We will describe the use of AR to project furniture into the user's home to facilitate the buying decision. We will also discuss other eCommerce uses for AR technology.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: context-sensitive e-commerce, augmented commerce, physical commerce, electronic commerce, augmented reality

Title: Tiny radio chip gives paper an ID
Author: Will Knight
Publication: New Scientist
Publication Date: 7/4/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: A tiny integrated circuit, that can transmit information wirelessly and is small enough to be embedded in paper, has been developed by Hitachi. It provides a new way to authenticate bank notes, legal documents and other products.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Privacy, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: RFID, Hitachi, Meu-chip, encryption, Meu Solutions, smart cards

Title: Master thesis projects within Magic Touch
Author: Thomas Pederson
Abstract or Excerpt: In office environments of today, there is a gap between the physical environment (consisting of books, papers, desks and drawers) and the virtual environment (e.g. the Microsoft Windows environment). This gap can distract users since they often have to manually transfer information and artefacts (paper documents etc.) between the environments which is boring and time consuming. Within the Magic Touch project we try bridge this gap by developing artefacts that exist in both the physical and virtual world at the same time (fig1). We believe that these "Physical-Virtual Artefacts" (PVAs) can help users to concentrate more on creative and fun activities rather than boring routine tasks.
Subjects: Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Mobile Phones, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: Sweden, Pervasive Computing, Magic Touch, GPS

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