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Title: Networking the Infrastructure
Author: Wade Roush
Publication: Technology Review
Publication Date: 12/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: New classes of detectors, plus safer building designs, point to an "intelligent city" that senses danger.
Subjects: New York, Surveillance, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Smart Cities and Terrorism, WTC, intelligent city, Sandia, Collaborative Sensemaking Project, Feng Zhao, DARPA

Title: Mixed Reality Systems Laboratory Inc.
Abstract or Excerpt: We have conducted a research project on Mixed Reality, which invented not only various new techniques but developed innovative see-through HMDs on our own. Above all, the video see-through HMD, presented at ISAR 2000, received the greatest praise and many requests desiring for its purchase.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Japan, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: HMD, Mixed Reality Systems, Augmented Reality, VR, MR

Title: Levels of detail
Author: Rafe Needleman
Publication: Red Herring Communications, Inc.
Publication Date: 11/26/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: displays satellite images of Earth at increasing resolutions (depending on how far you zoom in), and layers in data from street maps, demographics, and other sources.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Surveillance, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Keyhole (Earthviewer), satellite images, demographics, real-estate, geographical information system (GIS)

Title: Accenture labs create wearable computer ware
Author: Daniel S. Levine
Publication: San Francisco Business
Publication Date: 11/30/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Accenture Technology Labs in Palo Alto, a unit of the management consulting firm Accenture, has developed a prototype for a wearable computer that delivers information to the user through an earpiece and can help deliver information subtly to its user when needed.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: Owen Richter, Accenture Labs, wearable computers, memory augmentation, wearable commerce

Title: MIT Readies Net-Generation Bar Code
Author: Louis Trager
Publication: ZDNet
Publication Date: 4/3/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: At the system's heart is the realization that, with the Net, only data serving as a pointer must be embedded in the product or packaging. MIT proposes an ePC of up to 96 bits, including an eight-bit header, 24 bits each to identify the manufacturer and product type, and 40-bit serial number. This allows 33 trillion trillion trillion individual numbers.
Subjects: Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: MIT, bar code,

Title: Websigns: Hyperlinking Physical Locations to the Web
Author: Salil Pradhan, Cyril Brignone, Jun-Hong Cui, Alan McReynolds, and Mark T. Smith
Publication: Hewlett-Packard Laboratories
Abstract or Excerpt: HP researchers are developing handheld devices that combine wireless technology and ubiquitous computing to provide a transparent linkage between physical entities in the environment and resources available on the Web.
Subjects: Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Privacy, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: websigns, CoolTown, beacons, tags, augmented reality, virtual beacons, virtual tags

Title: Be Here Now
Author: David S. Bennahum
Publication: Wired, Nov 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Most maps of Manhattan show a straightforward grid of streets. On this one, coagulating splotches of red portrayed an additional network. The speckles were densest along vertical axes, where one would expect the avenues to be. They thinned out in perpendicular strands, following what would normally be the side streets. It reminded me of an epidemiological study tracking the spread of a disease, except that Devitt's image was showing the hot zones of cool in the city. The clustering of dots around any given point corresponded to the location of restaurants or bars in the Vindigo database that people had inquired about. The thicker the clump, the more interest people had shown in that particular place.
Subjects: Handhelds, Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), New York, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Vindigo, barcode, Telia, BotFighters

Title: Things that blink: Computationally augmented name tags
Author: R. Borovoy, M. McDonald, F. Martin, and M. Resnick
Publication: IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 35, No. 3&4, 1996 - MIT Media Lab
Abstract or Excerpt: The conventional name tag automatically dispenses information at a time when it is useful and relevant. The name of the person wearing the tag is visible in a face-to-face encounter. The information presented on a name tag changes according to who is wearing the name tag, but it does not depend on who is viewing the name tag. This paper presents a computationally augmented name tag--the "Thinking Tag"--that is capable of displaying different information depending on who is viewing it. When two participants at an event face each other, their name tags change to reflect a simple measure of how much they have in common. A goal of the Thinking Tag technology design is to create an augmented name tag that does not interfere with the social mechanisms that normally operate among groups of people. Therefore, the communication and computation technology are hidden within the tag.
Subjects: Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: RFID, Thinking Tag, LEDs

Title: Environmental Media: Accessing Virtual Representations of Real-time Sensor Data and Site-specific Annotations Embedded in Physical Environments
Author: Scott S. Fisher, Keio University at Shonan Fujisawa, Japan
Publication: 7th International Conference on Virtual Systems and MultiMedia in Berkeley California, USA, 25-27 October 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The goal of this research is to explore potential applications of location-based information and communication services over wireless networks with the intention of enabling a mobile user to browse a spatially correspondent multimedia information database about a specific location as it changes over time, to post location-specific information, or to access interpretive annotations posted by domain experts. This paper describes the design and prototyping of an "environmental media" system for linking virtual environments to the physical world, current research to develop comprehensive 3D representations of specific locations derived from both mobile and static real-time wireless sensing devices, and methods for capture, organization, and visualization of real-time, site-specific environmental information for users who are both remote and local to the site. The overall aim is to develop Environmental Media capabilities to facilitate and enhance visualization of natural processes, cycles, and systems by displaying pertinent contextual information that is digitally connected to actual locations in the physical world.
Subjects: Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: pervasive, augmented reality, virtual keyboards, environmental information, visualization, Virtual Field Guide, 3d, Environmental Media

Title: Environmental Media: Linking Virtual Environments to the Physical World
Author: Scott Fisher
Publication: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Mixed Reality, Yokohama, Japan (March, 2001)
Abstract or Excerpt: The goal of this project is to explore potential applications of location-based information services over wireless networks. Initial efforts have been focused on the design and prototyping of an "environmental media" system for linking virtual environments to the physical world through integration of capabilities and technology components from the fields of virtual reality, mixed reality, mobile multimedia, and wearable computing. In effect, the user is able to browse a spatially correspondent digital information database about a specific location as it changes over time, or can access interpretive annotations posted by domain experts.
Subjects: Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Augmented Reality, Mobile Multimedia, Wearable Computing, Context visualization, Environmental Media, pervasive

Title: Smart World
Author: Charles Schmidt
Publication: The MIT Report
Abstract or Excerpt: Connecting bits and atoms is an ongoing preoccupation at the Media Laboratory--particularly within the Physics and Media Group headed by Prof. Gershenfeld, and the Tangible Media Group, headed by Prof. Hiroshi Ishii, an associate professor of Media Arts and Sciences. Both groups are working to create unique tags that will be readable to computers using radio-frequency communication. Among the newer prototypes are so-called electrostatically coupled tags that computers can detect remotely from virtually any orientation. Little more than silicon chips sandwiched between an antenna of conductive ink on paper, these tags can cost anywhere from several pennies to roughly fifty cents each, depending on the amount of information they are supposed to provide.
Subjects: Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: RFID, pervasive, Media Lab, UPC, Auto-ID Center (AIDC), penny tags

Title: Thad Starner
Author: MIT Thesis Chapter, provided by Scott Fisher
Abstract or Excerpt: This chapter will attempt, through various anecdotes, to commincate the experience of everyday life augmented with a wearable computer.
Subjects: Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: wearable computing, Media Lab

Title: Geocaching
Abstract or Excerpt: Geocaching is an entertaining adventure game for gps users. Participating in a cache hunt is a good way to take advantage of the wonderful features and capability of a gps unit. The basic idea is to have individuals and organizations set up caches all over the world and share the locations of these caches on the internet. GPS users can then use the location coordinates to find the caches. Once found, a cache may provide the visitor with a wide variety of rewards. All the visitor is asked to do is if they get something they should try to leave something for the cache.
Subjects: Gaming, Location Sensitive Devices (LSD)
Keywords: geocaching, GPS,

Title: BarPoint: Barcodes on Mobile Phones
Abstract or Excerpt: Keep your personal information at your fingertips and take advantage of BarPoint's shopping services from your wireless device! Get up-to-the-minute product info sent to your phone, or just point to our site from any Internet-enabled cell phone, pager, or handheld PDA and utulize great features like these while you're shopping.
Subjects: Handhelds, Mobile Phones, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: Barcodes, BarPoint, m-commerce

Title: Euro bank notes to embed RFID chips by 2005
Author: Junko Yoshida
Publication: EE Times
Publication Date: 12/19/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The European Central Bank is working with technology partners on a hush-hush project to embed radio frequency identification tags into the very fibers of euro bank notes by 2005, EE Times has learned. Intended to foil counterfeiters, the project is developing as Europe prepares for a massive changeover to the euro, and would create an instant mass market for RFID chips, which have long sought profitable application.
Subjects: Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: RFID, currency, European Central Bank, counterfeit

Title: Programming a Paintable Computer
Author: William Butera
Publication: PhD Thesis Proposal, MIT
Abstract or Excerpt: The long term goal is to create a 'paintable computer' - an instance of several thousand copies of a single integrated circuit (IC), each the size of a large sand kernel, uniformly distributed in a semi-viscous medium and applied to a surface like paint. Each IC contains an embedded micro, memory and a wireless transceiver in a 4 mm square package, is internally clocked, and communicates locally. While the hardware presents its own challenges, the deeper problems lie in the programming model. In this research, we develop a candidate programming model and qualify its performance over a set of representative applications. Work begins with a hardware reference model for the individual computing particles. A first cut programming model is proposed and initial applications are developed. Results from the applications are fed back to drive an iterative refinement of the programming model, followed by a succeeding rounds of application development.
Subjects: Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: paintable computing, quantum computation,

Title: MIThril, the next generation research platform for context aware wearable computing
Author: Rich DeVaul, Steve Schwartz, and Sandy Pentland
Publication: MIT Media Lab
Abstract or Excerpt: MIThril is a new context aware wearable computing research platform in development at the MIT Media Lab. MIThril combines small, light-weight RISC processors (including the StrongARM), a single-cable power/data "body bus" and high-bandwidth wireless networking in a package that is nearly as light, comfortable, and unobtrusive as ordinary street clothing.
Subjects: Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: context aware, wearable, MIT, MIThril, community, HCI

Title: Ask Not for Whom the Cell Phone Tolls: Some Problems with the Notion of Context-Aware Computing
Author: Thomas Erickson
Publication: To appear in Communications of the ACM. New York: ACM Press, in press 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The cell phone, and its potential for intrusion into social situations at inauspicious moments, has become a symbol of the blunt impacts of technology upon the fluid and subtle social structures within which we construct our lives.
Subjects: Mobile Phones, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: context-awareness computing, cue-texts

Title: ENGwear: Wearable Wireless Systems for Electronic News Gathering
Author: Steve Mann Wearable News Gathering
Publication: Humanistic Intelligence Lab, University of Toronto
Abstract or Excerpt: ENGwear is an experiment in wearable news gathering systems conducted by students and researchers at the Humanistic Intelligence Lab at the University of Toronto.
Subjects: Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: ENGwear, Humanistic Intelligence Lab, Personal Cybernetics, wearable computing

Title: Wearable Computing as Means for Personal Empowerment
Author: Steve Mann
Publication: Keynote Address for The First International Conference on Wearable Computing, ICWC-98, May 12-13, Fairfax, VA
Abstract or Excerpt: Wearable computing facilitates a new form of human--computer interaction comprising a small body--worn computer system that is always on and always ready and accessible. In this regard, the new computational framework differs from that of hand held devices, laptop computers and personal digital assistants (PDAs). The "always ready" capability leads to a new form of synergy between human and computer, characterized by long-term adaptation through constancy of user--interface.
Subjects: Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: wearable computing,

Title: MIT building a "suitable" computer
Author: Jane Wakefield
Publication Date: 6/18/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Wearable computers have long been on the wackier end of the technology visionary scale. But for Steven Schwartz, the idea of them overtaking mobile phones or handheld computers for Web surfing and personal organizing is a no-brainer.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Steven Schwartz, MIThril, wearable computing, MIT Media Lab

Title: New body art
Author: Scott Stemberger
Publication: IBM Developer Works, January 2002
Abstract or Excerpt: Wearable computing represents the next big frontier in the push for the "always on, always active, always connected" environment of the future. Envisioned by some as a small hidden device with transmission and storage capabilities that is wirelessly connected to an ear-mounted speaker/microphone, most people think of wearable computers as more suited for Star Trek than for a shopping mall. This article discusses the status of wearable computers; the challenges faced by software and hardware manufacturers in developing effective and widely accepted wearable devices; and the commencement of a new paradigm for how wearable technology can create value for consumers and enterprises.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Privacy, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: wearable computing, wearable wireless devices, smart spaces, 802.11b WLAN, Remote Access Mobile Point (RAMP), contextual awareness

Title: Wearable Computers: Existential Technology Empowering Individuals against the Orwellian Future
Publication: University of Toronto
Abstract or Excerpt: "Smart" rooms, other "smart" devices, and interfaces that we see all around us reflect a design perspective which creates technologies that have the ability to monitor, observe and report on their users. Furthermore, these technologies rarely reveal their inner workings. While allegedly these surveillance mechanisms are implemented for the safety and convenience of the user, they are often based on an absolute trust in the manufacturer or service provider. Trust corrupts. Absolute trust corrupts absolutely.
Subjects: Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: smart rooms, wearable computing, philosophy of wearables

Title: Hitachi PC Makes a Fashion Statement
Author: Kuriko Miyake
Publication: PC World
Publication Date: 1/16/2002
Abstract or Excerpt: Hitachi will roll out a wearable PC and companion head-mount display for business users in February, the company announced on Tuesday.
Subjects: Japan, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: wearable computing, Hitachi, WIA-100NB Wearable Internet Appliance, Windows CE, Xybernaut

Title: Clothes That Say It All
Author: Thomas K. Grose
Publication: Time Europe, Vol. 159 No. 2
Publication Date: 1/14/2002
Abstract or Excerpt: Europe's first intelligent garments aren't cheap but could soon be the togs we can't afford to be without.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: wearable computing, intelligent garments, Reima, Smart 3305, Smart Clothing

Title: Responsive Environments
Author: Myron Krueger
Publication: NCC Proceedings, 1977, 422-433

Title: Electronic Expansion of Human Perception
Author: Robinett, Warren
Publication: Whole Earth Review, Fall 1991, 16-21
Abstract or Excerpt: The true potential of this new field comes from the ability of a head mounted display to induce a synthetic experience in its wearer. The ability to artificially create and design experience enables possibilities and powers that were formerly impossible. If experience can be captured and transmitted, then you can 'travel' instantaneously to a distant location and see the trees, feel the wind, hear the birds, and smell the flowers. If electronic instruments can sense things that you cannot perceive, such as the inside of opaque objects, then you can be shown images of these invisible things. There are, however, things which are invisible to all of your senses. Examples of these imperceptible phenomena are X-rays, infrared radiation, radio waves, magnetic fields, radioactivity, ultrasound, electricity, the inside of opaque objects, microscopic objects, and events occurring too fast to see. Even though you cannot directly perceive these things, you can indirectly measure and observe them with various instruments and electronic sensors.

Title: The Dance of Bits and Atoms
Author: Alex Pentland
Abstract or Excerpt: There is a deep divide between the world of bits, and the world of atoms. Current machines are blind and deaf; they are unaware of us or our desires unless we explicity instruct them. Consequently, only experts use most machines, and even they must spend most of their time battling arcane languages and strange, clunky interface devices.

Title: Sketchpad -- A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System
Author: Ivan E. Sutherland
Publication: Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, Detroit, Michigan, May 1963, and MIT Lincoln Laboratory Technical Report #296, January 1963

Title: A Head-Mounted Three-Dimensional Display
Author: Ivan E. Sutherland
Publication: AFIPS Conference Proceedings 33, Part I, 1968, 757-764

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