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Title: ActionForum
Abstract or Excerpt: Slashdot-esque moderated forum software, seemingly aimed at a more professional audience. "ActionForums are reader rated discussion forums. They are structured to promote a productive dialogue by the transparent filtering down of inappropriate or marginally relevant comments. They make clear where agreement and disagreement lie. ActionForums support threads of comments and replies to comments ordered by the preference of the participants rather than chronologically. ActionForums are fair and non-partisan because they operate according to a content neutral set of rules, which are applied automatically. ActionForum is a web-based service that: * Encourages Dialogue * Builds Communities * Enables Collaboration * Identifies Areas of Consensus * Generates Reporting that gives the information you need to take an Action
Subjects: Cooperation, Reputation Systems
Keywords: user-moderated forums, dialogue, consensus, chronological forums, facilitate agreement


Title: Trust Among Strangers in Internet Transactions: Empirical Analysis of eBay's Reputation System
Author: Paul Resnick and Richard Zeckhauser
Publication: Working Paper for the NBER workshop on empirical studies of electronic commerce
Publication Date: 2/5/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Reputations that are transmitted from person to person can deter moral hazard and discourage entry by bad types in markets where players repeat transactions but rarely with the same player. On the Internet, information about past transactions may be both limited and potentially unreliable, but it can be distributed far more systematically than the informal gossip among friends that characterizes conventional marketplaces. One of the earliest and best known Internet reputation systems is run by eBay, which gathers comments from buyers and sellers about each other after each transaction. Examination of a large data set from 1999 reveals several interesting features of this system, which facilitates many millions of sales each month. First, despite incentives to free ride, feedback was provided more than half the time. Second, well beyond reasonable expectation, it was almost always positive. Third, reputation profiles were predictive of future performance. However, the net feedback scores that eBay displays encourages Pollyanna assessments of reputations, and is far from the best predictor available. Fourth, although sellers with better reputations were more likely to sell their items, they enjoyed no boost in price, at least for the two sets of items that we examined. Fifth, there was a high correlation between buyer and seller feedback, suggesting that the players reciprocate and retaliate.
Subjects: Cooperation, Privacy, Reputation Systems
Keywords: eBay, trust, stoning, auction, sellers, buyers


Title: The Digital Silk Road
Author: Norman Hardy and Eric Dean Tribble
Abstract or Excerpt: Proposes a form of monetary exchange based upon network protocols. Network packets have values and carry currency with them, which they use to pay their way across the network, and to pay for services at their destinations.
Subjects: Cooperation, Reputation Systems
Keywords: digital money, transactions, money


Title: Effects of Positive Reputation Systems
Author: Joseph M. Whitmeyer
Publication: Social Science Research 29:188-207
Publication Date: 1/1/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: For a given population of potential trustees-actors or objects in whom others may seek to place trust-a positive reputation system is a formalized or institutionalized procedure or process by which a particular positive reputation is acquired or lost. Positive reputation systems are common in modern society. Examples include awarding of certifications, awards, credentials, and positive reviews. This study mathematically derives effects of two general characteristics of such systems-how easy it is to get a reputation and how effective the reputation is at discriminating between cooperators and non- cooperators-in the context of a third factor, the proportion of cooperators in the population. Some findings are as follows. The gain in confidence from a potential trustee having a reputation is a U-shaped function of reputation ease, with maximum depending on proportion of cooperators in the population. For potential trustees with a positive reputation, and trustors seeking and able to make deals with a limited number of trustees with positive reputations, the reputation is worth more the harder it is to get. However, when reputation effectiveness is moderate to high, the worth of a potential trustee with a positive reputation compared to the worth of a potential trustee without one becomes maximal when reputation is easy. The study also suggests a way to model continuous positive reputation systems-ones in which positive reputations are acquired gradually, as through amassing references.
Subjects: The Evolution of Reputation
Keywords: positive reputation, potential trustee, positive reputation system, cooperators, worth


Title: The Production of Trust in Online Markets
Author: Peter Kollock
Publication: Advances in Group Processes (Vol. 16), edited by E. J. Lawler, M. Macy, S. Thyne, and H. A. Walker. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. 1999
Abstract or Excerpt: Academic paper that covers two aspects of online commerce in an attempt to judge how unregulated markets deal with risk, focusing upon reputation management. It covers the "for sale" forums in UseNet and a number of web-based auctions, such as eBay. It deals with reputation management strategies of these commerce communities, with UseNet having tried out both positive and negative reputation management solutions, and with the auction house abilities to have each trader have archived records done by others as to their trustworthiness and reliability.
Subjects: Cooperation, Privacy, Reputation Systems
Keywords: social dilemma, Prisoner's Dilemma, online auction houses, negative reputation system, signal detection, eBay, UseNet, reputation management, blacklists, reputation server


Title: In Online Auctions, Rings of Bidders
Author: Judith H. Dobrzynski
Publication: The New York Times
Publication Date: 6/2/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Ring Bidding and creating positive reputations out of thin air. Rings of shills have been discovered on eBay, who work together to raise prices on each others items and give each other recommendations to raise their scores with the auction houses reputation management system. They were caught, and several user accounts deleted after inflation of a supposed Richard Diebenkorn painting where the seller and main culprit, a California lawyer, would not show the painting to a perspective buyer.
Subjects: Cooperation, Privacy, Reputation Systems
Keywords: online auctions, eBay, bidders, ring bidding


Title: Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities, and Software
Author: Steven Johnson
Publication: New York: Scribner, 2001


Title: Epinions
Abstract or Excerpt: Epinions.com is a clean, elegant, and fast-loading site that collects consumer-written opinions about hundreds and thousands of products. Well-written opinions filter up to the top of a category list, depending on how well they are rated by site visitors and Epinion users. This encourages people to write well-meaning and useful reviews of products that they own, places they have traveled, or books they have read. Also, Epinions pays you a nominal fee (one to three cents) for every time one of your reviews is read.
Subjects: Cooperation, Reputation Systems
Keywords: Epinions, trust, opinions, trust affect,


Title: Social Networks and the Effect of Reputation on Cooperation
Author: Vincent Buskens
Publication: Prepared for the proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Social Dilemmas
Publication Date: 3/30/1998
Abstract or Excerpt: In this paper we explore the management of trust relations, i.e., mechanisms that induce actors to place and to honor trust. These mechanisms can deter a trustee from abusing trust placed by the trustor, and thereby induce the trustor to place trust. We distinguish two types of embeddedness, namely, (1) repeated interactions between the same actors and (2) social networks that operate as information channels and link transactions of trustor and trustee to the trustee's relations with other trustors. In contrast with earlier game-theoretic models, networks are not assumed to be homogeneous. We focus on the relationship between network characteristics and the extent to which trust is placed.
Subjects: Cooperation, Reputation Systems, Sociology
Keywords: social network, trust, exchange relations, transactions


Title: Institute for the Study of Cooperative Relations (ISCORE)
Abstract or Excerpt: The ISCORE discussion papers contain papers, lectures, pre-publications, and reprints by members of ISCORE. Codebooks of data collections and descriptions of computer software developed by members of the ISCORE group are also included.
Subjects: Cooperation, Reputation Systems


Title: Reputation Bibliography
Author: The Reputations Research Network
Abstract or Excerpt: This site is for researchers who are studying how reputation systems should work in theory, how they actually work in practice, and how they could work better. You can find out about people, papers, and practical systems. And you can contribute pointers to useful information. A reputation system gives people information about others' past performance. It can enhance an online interaction environment by: 1. helping people decide who to trust; 2. encouraging people to be more trustworthy; 3. discouraging those who are not trustworthy from participating.
Subjects: Cooperation, Reputation Systems
Keywords: trust


Title: Reputation Systems: Facilitating Trust in Internet Interactions
Author: Resnick, Paul, Zeckhauser, Richard, Friedman, Eric, and Kuwabara, Ko
Publication: Communications of the ACM, 43(12)
Publication Date: 12/1/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Internet services operate on a vastly larger scale than Main Street and permit virtually anonymous interactions. Nevertheless, reputation systems are playing a major role. Systems are emerging that respect anonymity and operate on the Internet's scale. A reputation system collects, distributes, and aggregates feedback about participants' past behavior. Though few of the producers or consumers of the ratings know each other, these systems help people decide whom to trust, encourage trustworthy behavior, and deter participation by those who are unskilled or dishonest.
Subjects: Cooperation, Reputation Systems
Keywords: trust, eBay, interactions, feedback, sellers, buyers


Title: Enhancing the Internet with Reputations: An OpenPrivacy white paper
Author: Fen Labalme and Kevin Burton
Publication: OpenPrivacy.org
Publication Date: 3/1/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: OpenPrivacy.org is building an Internet platform to take us into the next age - the age of secure personalized information. Basic to this goal is a platform that will provide people with complete control over their personal information and aid them in protecting their privacy while simultaneously enabling more efficient data mining by marketers and the access to highly desirable market segments by advertisers. OpenPrivacy creates a secure marketplace for anonymous demographic and profile information, and a distributed, attack-resistant, reputation-based rating system that can be used for everything from item selection and ordering to search result filtering. Further, this system is completely open, allowing multiple communication mechanisms, languages and ontological meanings to coexist. This platform thrives on diversity.
Subjects: Cooperation, Reputation Systems
Keywords: Fen Labalme, Openprivacy.org, OpenPrivacy, opinions, bias, reputations, personal profile, Reputation Calculation Engine (RCE), reputation capital, To wear a cloak of anonymity


Title: Crime low on eBay site
Author: Associated Press
Publication: Marin Independent Journal, B4, B6
Publication Date: 12/29/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: How random strangers can cooperate.
Subjects: Cooperation, Reputation Systems
Keywords: eBay


Title: Using Recommendations for Managing Trust in Distributed Systems
Author: Alfarez Abdul-Rahman and Stephen Hailes
Publication: Proceedings IEEE Malaysia International Conference on Communication '97 (MICC'97), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. November 1997
Abstract or Excerpt: Each time we carry out vital communication in any distributed computer system such as the Internet, we face an inherent risk. This risk arises because we can never be completely certain about the trustworthiness of entities that mediate our on-line interactions. To minimise this risk, users must be given the chance to assess trust on the network, and be given an opportunity to pick an option with the least level of perceived risk. In this paper, we explain why traditional network security mechanisms are incomplete in their function to manage trust, and provide a general model based on recommendations.
Subjects: The Evolution of Reputation
Keywords: Transitivity of trust, trust


Title: The Market in Marketplaces: Some Notes on the Dubious Case of eBay
Author: Phil Agre
Publication: Red Rock Eater Digest, May 2000
Abstract or Excerpt: The wired world reconfigures intermediaries, but how? "One case study is provided by the online auction service, eBay. EBay is exhibit A for those who see the Internet bringing about a frictionless world of efficient markets, and so it makes an especially important study in that mysteriously underinvestigated topic, the market in marketplaces. Some positive results are available. Peter Kollock, for example, investigated the extent to which eBay sellers with high "feedback" ratings were able to command higher auction prices for their goods. Clearly in this sense the eBay market is working correctly: higher feedback ratings did in fact predict higher prices. I don't quarrel with this. But I want to suggest that eBay's success derives not entirely from its efficiency as a marketplace, but also from the inefficiency of the market in marketplaces."
Subjects: Cooperation, Reputation Systems
Keywords: eBay, online auction service, higher feedback ratings, markets


Title: Supporting Trust in Virtual Communities
Author: Alfarez Abdul-Rahman and Stephen Hailes
Publication: Proceedings Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 33, Maui, Hawaii, 4-7 January 2000. (Copyright 2000 IEEE)
Abstract or Excerpt: At any given time, the stability of a community depends on the right balance of trust and distrust. Furthermore, we face information overload, increased uncertainty and risk taking as a prominent feature of modern living. As members of society, we cope with these complexities and uncertainties by relying trust, which is the basis of all social interactions. Although a small number of trust models have been proposed for the virtual medium, we find that they are largely impractical and artificial. In this paper we provide and discuss a trust model that is grounded in real-world social trust characteristics, and based on a reputation mechanism, or word-of-mouth. Our proposed model allows agents to decide which other agents' opinions they trust more and allows agents to progressively tune their understanding of another agent's subjective recommendations.
Subjects: None
Keywords: community, trust models, Trustworthiness, Dispositional Trust, Trust


Title: Social Affordances and Implicit Ratings for Social Filtering on the Web
Author: Rob Procter and Andy McKinlay
Publication: Proceedings of the Fifth DELOS Workshop on Filtering and Collaborative Filtering, Budapest, 10-12th November, 1997. ERCIM Press, p. 89-96.
Publication Date: 11/10/1997
Abstract or Excerpt: The theme of this paper is exploring ways of extending web browsing environments to facilitate the sharing of information pertaining to document quality amongst communities of users on the Web. Amongst the issues it raises for discussion are: 1. sources of rating and recommendation data, 2. the context of ratings and recommendations, 3. real and virtual groups, and 4. privacy and accessibility
Subjects: Privacy, Reputation Systems
Keywords: Social Filtering, Collaborative Filtering, Computer Interaction, Usenet, GroupLens project, relevant implicit ratings, Usenet, trust, explicit ratings, rater


Title: SOaP: Social Filtering through Social Agents
Author: Hui Guo, Thomas Kreifelts, and Angi Voss
Publication: Fifth Delos Workshop, Filtering and Collaborative Filtering, Budapest, 10-12 November 1997
Publication Date: 11/10/1997
Abstract or Excerpt: The Web is becoming the premium source of information for a growing number of people. As a result, information overload arises as a problem of extracting useful information. Information gathering on the Web has become a time-consuming work. As an emerging technique for dealing with this problem, collaborative filtering (also known as social filtering) can improve retrieval precision and reduce the amount of time spent. In this paper we propose a social filtering system consisting of various types of agents which mediate between different people, groups and the Web. Agents work on behalf of their clients users or other agents under the specified security and/or privacy constraints. They interact with each other and allow people to cluster the URLs, rate and annotate the Web pages, and share the recommendations. Agents could also find people and groups with similar interests, bring people together to form groups and allow them to work within various groups to exploit the collected bookmarks. Eventually, the system could contribute to the social construction of knowledge on the Web.
Subjects: Cooperation, Reputation Systems
Keywords: social filtering, social agents, collaborative filtering, distributing, SOaP


Title: Everything 2
Abstract or Excerpt: E2 can be a very, very confusing place at first. This website has grown from being a very simple user-written encyclopedia (see E1) to a very complex online community with a focus to write, publish and edit a quality database of information, insight and humor. When you make an account here you join not only a team of dedicated writers but an entire micro-society and community with its own pop culture, politics, beauty and blunders. It's not perfect. In fact, it can be pretty messy. It's cool as hell, though...
Subjects: Cooperation, P2P, Reputation Systems
Keywords: Social Network, Collective Knowledge Community, E2


Title: New Web-based Bounty System
Publication: The Associated Press
Publication Date: 10/18/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: BountyQuest is the Internet destination where companies post large rewards for documents that describe certain information, and you provide the documents to collect the rewards. At BountyQuest, you will become a Bounty Hunter for information.
Subjects: The Evolution of Reputation
Keywords: bounties, patent, Trademark Office


Title: Learning through Identity Creation (Expert Exchanges)
Author: Maish R. Nichani
Publication: National Institute of Education, Singapore and Venkatesh Rajamanickam
Publication Date: 10/1/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: In this article, we will take a look at how e-learning and knowledge management supports one another- both from the theoretical as well as from the practical point of view.
Subjects: The Evolution of Reputation
Keywords: Epinions, Epinionator, Amy Jo Kim, trust, opinions, Web of Trust, Experts-Exchange


Title: Distraction, a Novel
Author: Bruce Sterling
Publication: New York: Bantam, 1998


Title: Relying On Trust To Find Reliable Information
Author: Alfarez Abdul-Rahman and Stephen Hailes
Publication: Proceedings 1999 International Symposium on Database, Web and Cooperative Systems (DWACOS'99), Baden-Baden, Germany, August 1999
Abstract or Excerpt: Information retrieved from open distributed systems can be of uncertain reliability and sifting through a large amount of data can be a complex procedure. In real life, we handle such problems through the social mechanisms of trust and word-of-mouth, or reputation. We propose a sociologically motivated trust and reputation model for the problem of reliable information retrieval and present an example of its use in this paper.
Subjects: Cooperation, P2P, Reputation Systems, Sociology
Keywords: reputation, recommendation, trust, information retrieval, open distributed systems, trust, recommendations, security, PKI, decentralisation, PGP, agents, DAI


Title: Reputation Capital and Exchange Mechanisms
Author: Fen Labalme and Kevin Burton
Publication: An OpenPrivacy working paper
Publication Date: 4/1/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Overview|In legacy reputations systems, mechanisms such as trust, ratings, certifications and karma contribute to an entity's reputation capital. These mechanisms, collectively known as trust metrics (examples include Pymmetry, Advogato, and Slashdot moderation) are examples of a Reputation Calculation Engine (RCE), a pluggable component of the OpenPrivacy Reputation Management Framework (RMF). While in use, these RCEs may be themselves evaluated on their efficacy, value, correctness, etc. thus adding to their reputation. Further, reputation exchange mechanisms exist that enable translation of an entity's reputation capital accrued on one system to another.
Subjects: Cooperation, Privacy, Reputation Systems
Keywords: reputation capital, trust metrics, Pymmetry, exchange rates, Slashdot, Advogato, Reputation Calculation Engine (RCE), OpenPrivacy Reputation Management Framework (RMF), legacy reputations systems, reputation exchange


Title: Epinions, Inc.
Abstract or Excerpt: 1. What is the Web of Trust? Your Web of Trust is a network of reviewers whose opinions and ratings you have consistently found to be valuable. The Web of Trust mimics the way people share word-of-mouth advice every day.
Subjects: Cooperation, Reputation Systems
Keywords: Web of Trust, trust, opinions


Title: An hour in the life of a user of OpenPrivacy enabled systems
Author: Fen Labalme
Publication Date: 9/7/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: First, it's important to note that OpenPrivacy is intended as a free layer that supports privacy and user control in the design and implementation of personalized systems. So the user interface is currently undefined, but it could conceivable look exactly like the web does now, only with less spam, better presentation of personalized information, and (of course) personal privacy and control over one's profile. But I understand that that doesn't really answer the question asked. So I'll briefly describe a scenario reputation.
Subjects: Privacy, Reputation Systems, Surveillance
Keywords: OpenPrivacy


Title: Reputation in Auctions: Theory, and Evidence from eBay
Author: Daniel Houser and John Wooders
Publication: Department of Economics, University of Arizona
Publication Date: 2/14/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: We develop simple models of two common types of internet auctions and, employing a simple procedure suggested by our theoretical results, we examine the effect of reputation on price in a data set drawn from the online auction site eBay. The models are developed in an independent private value setting, where buyers and sellers have observable heterogeneous reputations (i.e., propensities to default). We characterize equilibrium in both high-bid auctions (typically consumer-to-consumer) where the buyer with the highest (proxy) bid wins, and in reputation-regarding auctions (typically business-to-business) where the seller may consider the buyers' reputations. Our main empirical result is that seller (but not buyer) reputation has an economically and statistically significant on price. We develop simple models of two common types of internet auctions and, employing a simple procedure suggested by our theoretical results, we examine the effect of reputation on price in a data set drawn from the online auction site eBay. Our main empirical result is that seller (but not buyer) reputation has an economically and statistically significance on price.
Subjects: Cooperation, Reputation Systems
Keywords: internet auctions,


Title: Social Information Filtering: Algorithms for Automating "Word of Mouth"
Author: Upendra Shardanand and Pattie Maes (MIT Media-Lab)
Publication: Proceedings of ACM CHI'95 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Abstract or Excerpt: This paper describes a technique for making personalized recommendations from any type of database to a user based on similarities between the interest profile of that user and those of other users. In particular, we discuss the implementation of a networked system called Ringo, which makes personalized recommendations for music albums and artists. Ringo's database of users and artists grows dynamically as more people use the system and enter more information. Four different algorithms for making recommendations by using social information filtering were tested and compared. We present quantitative and qualitative results obtained from the use of Ringo by more than 2000 people.
Subjects: Cooperation, Reputation Systems
Keywords: collaborative filtering, social information filtering, personalized recommendation systems, user modeling, information retrieval, intelligent systems, CSCW


Title: The Market for Evaluations
Author: Chris Avery, Paul Resnick, and Richard Zeckhauser
Publication: American Economic Review, vol. 89, no. 3, 564-584, 1999
Abstract or Excerpt: Recent developments in computer networks have driven the cost of distributing information virtually to zero, creating extraordinary opportunities for sharing product evaluations. We present pricing and subsidy mechanisms that operate through a computerized market and induce the efficient provision of evaluations. The mechanisms overcome three major challenges: first, evaluations, which are public goods, are likely to be underprovided; second, an inefficient ordering of evaluators may arise; third, the optimal quantity of evaluations depends on what is learned from the initial evaluations.
Subjects: Cooperation, Reputation Systems
Keywords: evaluations, information sharing, product quality, computer network, market, consumer, public goods




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