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Title: Men Fish for Compliments
Author: Josh Whitfield
Publication: Nature
Publication Date: 4/9/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The hunting techniques of some Melanesian islanders have more to do with politics than food.

Title: Reciprocity and the Evolution of Reputation
Author: G. Pollock and L.A. Dugatkin
Publication: Journal of Theoretical Biology 159, 1992, 25-37.

Title: Why Gossip is Good for You
Author: Robin Dunbar
Publication: New Scientist
Publication Date: 11/21/1992

Title: Altruistic Punishment in Humans
Author: Ernst Fehr and Simon Gachter
Publication: Nature 415, 2002, 137-40
Abstract or Excerpt: Human cooperation is an evolutionary puzzle. Unlike other creatures, people frequently cooperate with genetically unrelated strangers, often in large groups, with people they will never meet again, and when reputation gains are small or absent. These patterns of cooperation cannot be explained by the nepotistic motives associated with the evolutionary theory of kin selection and the selfish motives associated with signalling theory or the theory of reciprocal altruism. Here we show experimentally that the altruistic punishment of defectors is a key motive for the explanation of cooperation. Altruistic punishment means that individuals punish, although the punishment is costly for them and yields no material gain. We show that cooperation flourishes if altruistic punishment is possible, and breaks down if it is ruled out. The evidence indicates that negative emotions towards defectors are the proximate mechanism behind altruistic punishment. These results suggest that future study of the evolution of human cooperation should include a strong focus on explaining altruistic punishment.

Title: The Urge to Punish Cheats: Not Just Human, but Selfless
Author: Natalie Angier
Publication: The New York Times
Publication Date: 1/22/2002

Title: Mapping Social Cyberspaces: Measures and Maps of Usenet, a Computer Mediated Social Space
Author: Marc A. Smith
Publication: (Ph.D. diss., UCLA, 2001), 157-158
Abstract or Excerpt: This is a study of Collectives action in social cyberspace Usenet, a collection of social cyberspaces in which people gather, interact and exchange digital objects. The anarchic social structure of Usenet makes it a perspicuous setting for the study of the endogenous emergence of social structure, order, cooperation and conflict. I report the results of data mining a large collected set of messages exchanged during the year 2000 through the Usenet. Variations in the size, structure, and dynamics of these newsgroups are presented as well as visualized in an effort to present a holistic overview of this emerging social space. These data and images can be used as metrics for a range of naturally occurring social processes that present Usenet as a global system with complex structures and multiplex interrelationships at multiple scales.

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