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Title: The Technological Society, trans. J. Wilkinson
Author: Jacques Ellul
Publication: New York: Knopf, 1964

Title: Some Camera to Watch Over You
Author: Julia Scheeres
Publication: Wired News
Publication Date: 4/5/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Scott Fry is the president of Pedagog USA, a wireless application service provider. The company is trying to establish mobile surveillance systems in the United States as it has done in Great Britain. Software transmits video images over wireless networks to handheld devices such as Palm Pilots. The big deal is that the technology is very cheap to run. Pedagog's software enables video images to be transmitted over wireless networks to portable devices such as Palm Pilots or laptops for a fraction of the price of traditional closed circuit television (CCTV) systems.
Subjects: London, Privacy, Surveillance, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: Pedagog USA, law enforcement, surveillance cameras, face recognition technology, closed circuit television (CCTV), Data Protection Act, British government

Title: r "New York City: A Surveillance Camera Town
Publication Date: 12/13/1998
Abstract or Excerpt: Video surveillance cameras have arrived on the streets of New York City. Volunteers, upset by this fact and who believe that personal freedoms are threatened and privacy rights infringed upon because of the cameras, are trying to raise awareness and open avenues for dialogue. Volunteers want to record every private and public camera that can be found in public spaces in Manhatten and insert the locations into a comprehensive map. To date, they have recorded 2,397 surveillance cameras.
Subjects: Activism, Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Privacy, Surveillance
Keywords: New York Civil Liberties Union, New York City, Surveillance Camera Project

Title: Often unguarded wireless networks can be eavesdroppers' gold mine
Author: Lee Gomes
Publication: The Wall Street Journal
Publication Date: 4/27/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: As an experiment, two "white hat" security persons drive around San Francisco with simple wireless networking equipment in an attempt to see how many corporate wireless networks are unsecured. They are able to log into many corporate networks from the parking lot and just by driving by in a car.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Privacy, Surveillance, Wireless
Keywords: security, corporate networks, war driving,

Title: Cellphone surgery upsets Hong Kong
Author: Indira A.R. Lakshmanan
Publication: The Boston Globe
Publication Date: 4/21/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: A doctor answered a cell-phone call during surgery, and apparently caused further damage to the patient he was working on. It has crossed the line of acceptable phone usage. Another main aspect of the issue that has enflamed people is that the Hong Kong's Medical Council refused to discipline the doctor, even though he was not focused on the patiient, and even though there are laws against anyone using phones in hospitals because they could potentially disrupt medical equipment.
Subjects: Mobile Phones
Keywords: Medical Misconduct, cell phones, Hong Kong, surgery

Title: Can We Talk about the Future? An Imagined Dialog
Author: Caroline S. Wagner
Publication: Information Impacts Magazine
Publication Date: 2/22/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Inspired by writers of old, as well as a lecture given as a dialog by Lionel Tiger at a DARPA-sponsored seminar at RAND in 1998,[1] I have used the give and take of conversation to contrast different ways of thinking about technology and the future. Let's look in on this husband and wife, finding time to talk over coffee on a recent Sunday morning.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Handhelds, Mobile Phones, Sociology, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: futurism, scenarios,

Title: Michael Mauboussin: New-Economy Pinup
Author: Caroline Waxler
Publication: eCompany Now
Publication Date: 11/1/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Michael Mauboussin, Credit Suisse First Boston's chief U.S. investment strategist, apparently has a lot of Economy sector ears listening to him. He takes concepts from many different fields (history, physics, biology), and uses them to draw conclusions about market factors. His dotcom theory involves the idea that the winners will be the ones to get the most market share.
Subjects: Cooperation
Keywords: business, economy, Mauboussin, dotcom, eBay

Title: FBI's Reliance on the Private Sector Has Raised Some Privacy Concerns
Author: Glenn R. Simpson
Publication: The Wall Street Journal
Publication Date: 4/13/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Big Brother isn't gone. He's just been outsourced.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Privacy, Surveillance
Keywords: Privacy Act of 1974, ChoicePoint, Big Brother, FBI

Title: "The Question Concerning Technology," in Martin Heidegger: Basic Writings, ed. by David Krell
Author: Martin Heidegger
Publication: New York: Harper & Row, 1977

Title: The Marching Morons
Author: C. M. Kornbluth
Publication: Galaxy, April 1951

Title: Technologists predict big things for Internet
Author: Dan Gillmor
Publication: San Jose Mercury News
Publication Date: 3/10/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Technologists predicting what the future is going to be like.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: Internet, Bob Metcalfe, virtual reality, Ray Kurzweil, Broadcast Video Internet, Entertainment Internet, Association for Computing Machinery, futurism, wearable computing, Martin F.H. Schuurmans, ambient intelligence

Title: The Reinvention of Privacy
Author: Toby Lester
Publication: The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 287, No. 3, page 27-39
Publication Date: 3/1/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: This article provides a short history of privacy issues, as well as an overview of today's players and issues.
Subjects: Privacy, Surveillance
Keywords: Digital Angel, smart cards, Privacy Foundation, Zero-Knowledge Systems, cryptography, micropayments

Title: Welcome to the Always-On World
Author: Philip E. Agre
Publication: IEEE Spectrum 38(1), 2001, pages 10, 13
Abstract or Excerpt: Society is undergoing a tremendous shift in human relationships: from episodic to always-on.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Handhelds, Mobile Phones, Wireless
Keywords: social impact, interruptions, divided attention, addiction, boundaries, Bluetooth, the always-on world

Title: Does the Internet Increase, Decrease, or Supplement Social Capital? Social Networks, Participation, and Community Commitment
Author: Barry Wellman, Anabel Quan Haase, James Witte, Keith Hampton
Publication: To be published in the special issue "The Internet in Everyday Life," American Behavioral Scientist, vol 45, November, 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: How does the Internet affect social capital? Do the communication possibilities of the Internet increase, decrease, or supplement interpersonal contact, participation, and community commitment? Our evidence comes from a 1998 survey of 39,211 visitors to the National Geographic Society website, one of the first large-scale web surveys. We find that people's interaction online supplements their face-to-face and telephone communication, without increasing or decreasing it. However, heavy Internet use is associated with increased participation in voluntary organizations and politics. Further support for this effect is the positive association between offline and online participation in organizations and politics. However, the effects of the Internet are not only positive: the heaviest users of the Internet are the least committed to online community. Taken together, our evidence suggests that the Internet is becoming normalized as it is incorporated into the routine practices of everyday life.
Subjects: Cooperation
Keywords: social capital, social networks, voluntary organizations, politics, community commitment, Putnam

Title: Context-Aware Mobile Phones: The difference between pull and push, Restoring the importance of place
Author: Paul J. Rankin
Abstract or Excerpt: People on the move want information at the right time, in the right place, and personalized for them. This paper describes research and early concept testing towards achieving such relevance on mobile phones, noting the strong influence that the local environment within 10m has on situating human behaviour. Short-range RF beacons therefore offer a powerful way to augment reality, linking a handset to the various virtual associations of a locale, or the place to virtual projections from the user. Processes, which can negotiate sympathetically and confidentially between the current wishes and agenda of the user ('pull') and the range of opportunities generated by their environment ('push') while leaving the user in control, will determine the acceptance of new, location-based mobile services. The solution proposed exploits a set of default profiles, defined by broad user contexts and their calendar, in a two-way negotiation between the external triggers and the actions explicitly initiated by the user, but requires agreement on a common language for describing contexts and services classes. Many research challenges emerge.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Handhelds, Mobile Phones, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Pervasive Computing, Situatedness, context relevancy, Auras, beacons, virtual associations of place, Bluetooth, StarCursor

Title: The Dream Machine: JCR Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal
Author: M. Mitchell Waldrop
Publication: New York: Viking, 2001

Title: Next Messaging: An Introduction to SMS, EMS, MMS
Author: Mobile
Abstract or Excerpt: Mobile messaging is evolving beyond text by taking a development path from SMS (Short Message Service) to EMS (Enhanced Messaging Service) to MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service). Mobile Lifestreams already publishes its renowned 320 page SMS report called "Success 4 SMS" and its new report "Next Messaging: From SMS to EMS to MMS" of which this white paper is a summary. This white paper has a related Internet site at plus sub-sites at, and to keep readers up-to-date with the very latest developments.
Subjects: London, Mobile Phones, SMS
Keywords: GPRS, EMS, MMS

Title: Physical Place and CyberPlace: The Rise of Personalized Networking
Author: Barry Wellman
Publication: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25 (2001), Special Issue on "Networks, Class and Place," edited by Talja Blokland and Mike Savage
Abstract or Excerpt: My principal concerns in this essay are: 1. How networks of community exist in physical places-such as neighbourhoods and cyberplaces-such as the Internet; 2. How the development of computer supported community networks affects access to resources. Computer networks are social networks. Social affordances of computer supported social networks-broader bandwidth, wireless portability, globalized connectivity, personalization-are fostering the movement from door-to-door and place-to-place communities to person-to-person and role-to-role communities. People connect in social networks rather than in communal groups. In- person and computer-mediated communication are integrated in communities characterized by personalized networking.
Subjects: Cooperation, Mobile Phones, Wireless
Keywords: online social networks, Place-to-Place, networks, personalization, neighbourhoods, socializing, milieus, connectivity, Netville

Title: Machines That Become Us
Author: An international conference, April 18 - 19, 2001
Publication: NEC USA C&C Research Laboratories
Publication Date: 4/18/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The conference will explore how personal technologies, especially communication technologies, are assimilated into people's lives, bodies and homes, and with what the consequences of this assimilation have been for their self-image and social relationships. A special focus is the relationship between the "second skin," that is clothing and fashion, and technology. Here we wish to analyze the confluence of these elements as both a means to extend human communication capabilities (in both physical and symbolic terms), and as a subject itself of interpersonal communication. In this regard, attention will be devoted to the way individuals and groups use technology as a symbol or luxury, particularly in the context of fashion and style.
Subjects: Mobile Phones, SMS, Surveillance, Ubiquitous Computing, Wireless
Keywords: Pervasive Computing, social networks

Title: Crypto Anarchy and Virtual Communities
Author: Timothy C. May
Abstract or Excerpt: The combination of strong, unbreakable public key cryptography and virtual network communities in cyberspace will produce interesting and profound changes in the nature of economic and social systems. Crypto anarchy is the cyberspatial realization of anarcho-capitalism, transcending national boundaries and freeing individuals to make the economic arrangements they wish to make consensually.
Subjects: Privacy, Surveillance
Keywords: cryptography,

Title: Towards a Deeper Understanding of Task Interruption
Author: Mark Stringer, Marge Eldridge and Mik Lamming
Publication: CHI Workshop on Situated Interaction in Ubiquitous Computing (2000)
Publication Date: 4/3/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: In the future, if we have not reached this stage already, we will be able to carry around with us many sensors capable of providing a whole slew of contextual information. Is the user tired? Is the user annoyed? Is the user talking to someone? Is the user walking, jogging or driving? It seems conceivable that each of us could soon be carrying a device capable of answering all of these questions. However, what is far from certain is what we can usefully do with this newlyavailable information. Our particular interest is develop application software which can take such context information gleaned from sensors and use it to support and possibly improve the interruption management strategies of mobile workers.
Subjects: Handhelds, Mobile Phones, SMS, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Always on, interruptions, interruptability

Title: "A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of Man's Intellect," in Vistas in Information Handling, Vol. I, eds. D. W. Howerton and D. C. Weeks
Author: D. C. Engelbart
Publication: Washington: Spartan Books, 1963

Title: "Simulacra and Simulations," in Jean Baudrillard, Selected Writings, ed. by Mark Poster
Author: Jean Baudrillard
Publication: Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988

Title: Machine Dreams: Economics Becomes a Cyborg Science
Author: Philip Mirowski
Publication: Cambridge University Press
Publication Date: 10/1/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: This is the first cross-over book in the history of science written by an historian of economics, combining a number of disciplinary and stylistic orientations. In it Philip Mirowshki shows how what is conventionally thought to be "history of technology" can be integrated with the history of economic ideas.
Keywords: Foucault, economics, history of technology, cyborg science

Title: Exposing the Global Surveillance System
Author: Nicky Hager
Publication: Red Rock Eater Digest
Publication Date: 12/3/1996
Abstract or Excerpt: For 40 years, New Zealand's largest intelligence agency, the Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) the nation's equivalent of the US National Security Agency (NSA) had been helping its Western allies to spy on countries throughout the Pacific region, without the knowledge of the New Zealand public or many of its highest elected officials. What the NSA did not know is that by the late 1980s, various intelligence staff had decided these activities had been too secret for too long, and were providing me with interviews and documents exposing New Zealand's intelligence activities. Eventually, more than 50 people who work or have worked in intelligence and related fields agreed to be interviewed.
Subjects: Privacy, Surveillance
Keywords: ECHELON, New Zealand, intelligence, Dictionary, Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB), US National Security Agency (NSA)

Title: Tools are making the rules
Author: Bill Davidow
Publication: San Jose Mercury News
Publication Date: 12/6/1998
Abstract or Excerpt: What will the society of the future, designed by computers, look like? Hundreds of millions of computers are working on the answer today. Millions are redesigning government, business and commerce, and some are probably engaged in redesigning man. Man has, of course, empowered computers to carry out these processes, but once they are in place, increasingly they proceed on their own, carrying out their missions with little or no human intervention.
Subjects: Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: The Era of Sentient Things

Title: Direct and mediated interaction in the maintenance of social relationships
Author: Rich Ling
Publication: Telenor
Publication Date: 8/26/1999
Abstract or Excerpt: This paper is an analysis of how mediated interaction has changed the ways in which we establish and develop interpersonal relationships. The paper examines the dimensions of friendship and also the attempts to separate out the role of interaction via various media such as mobile telephony, MUDs, MOOs, and IRC. The paper finds that interaction via the Internet may aid the establishment of relationships. The relationships are, however, slower to develop and necessarily migrate over to other forms of communication including face to face interaction. After the establishment of a relationship there is a preference for more simultaneous, direct interaction with which one can coordinate every day activities.
Subjects: Cooperation, Mobile Phones
Keywords: relationships, mediated interaction, mobile telephony, Goffman, Lovegety,

Title: Nobody Sits at Home and Waits for the Telephone to Ring: Micro and Hyper-Coordination through the use of Mobile Telephones
Author: Rich Ling and Birgette Yttri
Publication: Perpetual Contact, edited by James Katz and Mark Aakhus, Cambridge University Press, 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: In this paper we outline the concepts of micro- and hyper-coordination via the use of the mobile telephone. The material is based on 10 group interviews carried out in Norway in the fall of 1999. The analysis shows that micro-coordination, largely an instrumental activity, was common for two-career parents. When exam-ining the teens, however, we found that in addition to the instrumental use, they have adopted the expressive use of the device. This, in addition to the use of the device in the social presentation of self has lead us to call their use hyper-coordination. This adoption of technology follows from their specific life period where they desire access to peers and wish to distance themselves, to a certain degree, from their parents. The mobile telephone is a logical tool in this work. Other advantages are that it allows them new ways with which to develop intimate relationships and to remain abreast of social life.
Subjects: Cooperation, Mobile Phones, SMS
Keywords: mobile telephony, adolescence, micro-coordination, hyper-coordination, group boundaries, qualification of popularity, chain letters, social popularity, Goffman, on the front stage

Title: The Third Wave
Author: Alvin Toffler
Publication: New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1980

Title: The Myth of the Machine
Author: Lewis Mumford
Publication: New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World, 1966

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