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Title: Some Economics of Personal Activity and Implications for the Digital Economy
Author: Douglas A. Galbi
Publication: First Monday, volume 6, number 7 (July 2001)
Abstract or Excerpt: This paper documents, from 1925 to the present, some important historical facts about personal activity and commercial efforts to attract personal attention. First, increases in personal time spent with media as the primary focus of activity match closely increases in total personal discretionary time. Second, the share of advertising spending in total economic output (GDP) has been roughly constant long-term. Third, real advertising spending per person-hour spent with media has been roughly constant long-term. These historical facts suggest that the traditional approach of buying personal attention through media advertising will not support relatively rapid growth in the digital economy, even with significant changes in media technology such as higher bandwidth and greater interactivity. The growth of the digital economy is likely to depend instead on growth of discretionary time and integration of digital technology into new forms of socializing, transacting, and spending time.
Keywords: media, digital economy, Economics of Attention Economy

Title: Facial Frisking in Tampa
Author: Richard M. Smith
Publication: The Privacy Foundation
Publication Date: 7/16/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: I have never participated in a police line-up, but my next trip to Tampa, Fla., will change all that. The police department there made a big splash recently when it installed a new high-tech line-up system in Ybor City, the entertainment district of Tampa. This system uses a network of 36 video cameras installed on the streets of Ybor City to help police spot the bad guys and arrest them.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Privacy, Surveillance, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Smart CCTV, police, Ybor City, Visionics, Tampa, facial recognition software, Pervasive Surveillance

Title: "Panopticism," in Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. Alan Sheridan
Author: Michel Foucault
Publication: New York: Vintage Books, 1995

Title: Mobile Futures, Rode Hoed, Amsterdam, May 31, 2001
Author: Jane Szita
Publication: Doors of Perception
Publication Date: 6/1/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: How sustainable is the mobile society? That was the key question posed at Mobile Futures, a mini-conference organised by O2, the sustainable design network, and Infodrome, the Dutch Government think-tank which looks at the social implications of ICTs.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Mobile Phones, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Mobile Futures, mobile society, Amsterdam, sustainability, UMTS, Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems, third-generation, 3G

Title: The Mobile Invasion (of Privacy)
Author: Michael Grebb
Publication: TheFeature
Publication Date: 2/26/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Having started first with our professional lives, wireless technologies are now infiltrating every crevice of modern society. What effect is it having on human psychology?
Subjects: Mobile Phones, Privacy, Surveillance, Wireless
Keywords: constant connectivity, networks, smartphone, nSeconds,, intrusive, GPS satellites, immediacy, Passworld

Title: 100 Phenomena
Author: Ilkka Hannula & Risto Linturi, English translation by William Moore
Publication: Yritysmikrot Oy
Publication Date: 1/1/1998
Abstract or Excerpt: We have written many miniature scenarios for the future. They are published as a book but only in Finnish. We did our background work in the usual fashion but then wanted to do brief but detailed fictional stories to get an idea of how the future really appears to those people living then. Hopefully these stories give you some of the same feelings as they gave us when writing. Since writing - many of the stories have started to become much closer to reality. The closest models we have borrowed from in our prediction methods are Jules Verne and Alvin Toffler.
Keywords: alternative scenarios, future, trends, invention, Risto Linturi, science, predictions

Title: The Mobile Phone: New Social Categories and Relations
Author: Leopoldina Fortunati, University of Trieste
Publication: The Social Consequences of Mobile Telephony: The Proceedings from a Seminar About Society, Mobile Telephony and Children, Proceedings edited by Rich Ling and Kristin Trane
Publication Date: 6/26/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Today, it is already well known that the mobile phone is profoundly transforming interpersonal relations. It is changing family roles, rewriting the boundaries of com-municative possibilities, re-building the logic of running institutions such as hospitals and schools, and the strategies of crime organisations intensifying work flows and the performance of more actions at the same time, making the organisation of work relations more rational, and so on. Here we wish to see how the mobile phone modifies the presence and absence of ind ividuals in social space, the social configuration of space and time, the implementation of the democratic process and the construction of the modal personality.
Subjects: Mobile Phones, Sociology, Wireless
Keywords: nomadic intimacy, Cell democracy, public space, presence/absence

Title: Mobile culture of children and teenagers in Finland
Author: Pirjo Rautiainen and Eija-Liisa Kasesniemi
Publication: Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk and Public Performance
Publication Date: 6/16/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Finland has in several articles been called the laboratory for mobile communication. The claim is probably at least partly justified. The penetration level in the spring 2000 was as high as 69%, and 85% of Finnish households have at least one mobile subscription. An increasing number of Finnish families are giving up the fixed line subscription and acquiring personal mobile phones for each family member. Mobile communication does not consist of simply calling: the use of written mobile communication, SMS, is also significant. The development of SMS has surpassed all expectations. In 1999 the 5 million inhabitants of Finland sent nearly 650 million text messages. In the year 2000 the figure is expected to exceed one billion.
Subjects: Mobile Phones
Keywords: Finland, social consequences, mobile telephony, children, Information Society Research Center, INSOC

Title: "It must be necessary, it has to cover a need": The adoption of mobile telephony among pre-adolescents and adolescents
Author: Rich Ling and Per Helmersen, Telenor R&D
Publication: The Social Consequences of Mobile Telephony: The Proceedings from a Seminar About Society, Mobile Telephony and Children, Proceedings edited by Rich Ling and Kristin Trane
Publication Date: 6/16/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: When does a child or teen "need" to have a mobile telephone? We examine this question by looking into various aspects of mobile telephone adoption by pre-adolescents and adolescents. We are interested in examining the issues, criteria and the social context that must be in place before a mobile telephone "makes sense" for persons in this phase of life.
Subjects: Mobile Phones, SMS, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: pervasive computing, pre-adolescents, adolescents, social consequences, mobile telephony, Norwegian, teens

Title: Privacy Problems?
Author: Jake McKee
Publication: Wireless Business & Technology, March/April 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The cell phone is one of the most powerful consumer tools known to humankind...but what about privacy issues? The cell phone is one of the most powerful consumer tools known to man. It's also the biggest strike against personal privacy there is.
Subjects: Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Mobile Phones, Privacy, SMS, Surveillance, Wireless
Keywords: 911, Federal Trade Commission, FTC

Title: At what cost pervasive? A social computing view of mobile computing systems
Author: D.C. Dryer, C. Eisbach, and W.S. Ark
Publication: IBM Systems Journal -- Vol 38, No. 4 - Pervasive Computing
Abstract or Excerpt: With the advent of pervasive systems, computers are becoming a larger part of our social lives than ever before. Depending on the design of these systems, they may either promote or inhibit social relationships. We consider four kinds of social relationships: a relationship with the system, system-mediated collaborative relationships, relationships with a community, and interpersonal relationships among co-located persons. In laboratory studies, the design of pervasive computers is shown to affect responses to social partners. We propose a model of how pervasive systems can influence human behavior, social attributions, and interaction outcomes. We also discuss some implications for system design.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: Pervasive Computing, CSCW, Social interface theory

Title: A look at human interaction with pervasive computers
Author: W. S. Ark and T. Selker
Publication: IBM Systems Journal -- Vol 38, No. 4 - Pervasive Computing
Abstract or Excerpt: A collection of papers has been gathered in order to explore the pervasive computing trend with a humanistic approach. Is it possible for us to understand what the technological world will be like in the next millennium? These papers will help technologists to share in the successes of others in this field and also to understand problems researchers are having in creating ubiquitous computing environments. Our experiences are conveyed to motivate future work in the area and to help all of us envision and create the future. Because pervasive computing affects many people in any number of disciplines, we took a broad approach when picking topics for this issue. Education, communication, and social implications are among the topics discussed here. Although the means used by the authors to reach for their goals may be different, there are many similarities in their visions of the future.
Subjects: Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: The Era of Sentient Things

Title: Local Use and Sharing of Mobile Phones
Author: Alexandra Weilenmann and Catrine Larsson, Viktoria Institute, Sweden
Publication: (Under publication) Wireless World: Social and International Aspects of the Mobile Age, (eds.) B. Brown et. al., Springer Verlag, 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The mobile phone is often described as a personal phone. In research as well as in the design discourse, there seems to be an underlying assumption that mobile phones are used by individuals for remote communication purposes. In this paper, we hope to show how the mobile phone has become something more; it has become a tool for collaborative interaction in the local environment. Among the teenagers we have studied, the phones are not just treated as personal, and the calls and other communication are not treated as private. Rather, there is much work going on to render the communication 'public', enabling several people to take part in it. The remote communication, i.e. the phone calls they receive or make, as well as the SMS-messages they receive or send, are accounted for in the ongoing local interaction. Teenagers thus share the communication they take part in with their co-present friends. Not only the communication but also the phone itself is often shared. These findings question the notion of the mobile phone as merely a personal phone used for remote communication.
Subjects: Cooperation, Helsinki, Mobile Phones, SMS, Wireless
Keywords: teenager, telephone, communication, sharing

Title: Little Boxes, Glocalization, and Networked Individualism
Author: Barry Wellman
Publication: forthcoming in Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches, eds. Makoto Tanabe, Peter van den Besselaar, and Toru Ishida. Part of Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science: The State of the Art Series. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2002.
Abstract or Excerpt: Much thinking about digital cities is in terms of community groups. Yet, the world is composed of social networks and not of groups. This paper traces how communities have changed from densely-knit Little Boxes (densely-knit, linking people door-to-door) to Glocalized networks (sparsely-knit but with clusters, linking households both locally and globally) to Networked Individualism (sparsely-knit, linking individuals with little regard to space). The transformation affects design considerations for computer system that would support digital cities.
Subjects: Cooperation, Sociology, Wireless
Keywords: social networks, networked individualism, glocalization, digital cities, Barnraising and Brainstorming Online, networks, connectivity, glocalized networks

Title: Don't Smile, You're on Surveillance Camera
Author: Jane Black
Publication: Privacy Matters column, BusinessWeek Online
Publication Date: 8/9/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: As technology blurs the lines between public acts and private conduct, the courts need to spell out where Big Brother is allowed to peek.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Privacy, Surveillance
Keywords: Ybor City, Tampa, facial-recognition software, cameras, law, high-tech surveillance cameras, privacy protection

Title: On the Move with a Magic Thing: Role Playing in Concept Design of Mobile Services and Devices
Author: Giulio Iacucci, Kari Kuutti and Mervi Ranta
Publication: Conference proceedings on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, and Techniques, August 17-19, 2000, Brooklyn, NY, Pages 193-202
Abstract or Excerpt: Designing concepts for new mobile services and devices, poses several challenges to the design. We consider user participation as a way to address part of the challenges. We show how our effort relates to current and past research. In particular, PD (Participatory Design) has inspired us in developing two participatory techniques. The two techniques are organized around situations either staged or real where users and designers can envision and enact future scenarios: a role-playing game with toys, and SPES (Situated and Participative Enactment of Scenarios). They were developed in an industry-funded project that investigates services for the nomadic Internet user of the future. We then discuss how the techniques help in facing the design challenges.
Subjects: Gaming, Mobile Phones
Keywords: acting out, games for design, mobility, participatory design, future scenarios, SPES (Situated and Participative Enactment of Scenarios), CSCW

Title: Me, my phone and I: The role of the mobile phone
Author: Michael Hulme and Sue Peters
Publication: A paper presented at the CHI (Computer Human Interaction) Conference in Seattle, March 2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The paper stems from speculative research undertaken by Teleconomy about the influence mobile phones have on society and the use of other media. The research is a qualitative study of over 210 early individual (consumers rather than commercial users) mobile phone Internet/data adopters. Primarily the research centres on behaviour - how people behave with their mobiles, why WAP has been adopted now and what the effects on other media usage are. The research is located in a broader context that considers social and cultural issues of identity. Many interesting ideas arose from the research which were not explored to their full extent in the commercial report. This paper provides an opportunity for their development. The research is interpreted using applied frameworks from sociology and philosophy. The frameworks are mainly derived from the work of Anthony Giddens, Roland Barthes and Jean Baudrillard. The leading concepts are identity, dialogue and symbolism. Why have a mobile?
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Mobile Phones, SMS, Wireless
Keywords: teenagers, mobile telephony, Nokia, Jean Baudrillard, behaviour, identity, dialogue, symbolism, Anthony Giddens, Roland Barthes

Title: CCTV crime blitz costs �79m
Author: Steve Bird And Elizabeth Disley
Publication: The Times
Publication Date: 8/22/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: THOUSANDS more closed circuit television cameras are to be installed in public places, it was announced yesterday. The Government is spending �79 million on 250 schemes in England and Wales in the battle against crime.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Privacy, Surveillance
Keywords: closed circuit television cameras, CCTV, England, Wales, UK, crime, facial recognition

Title: Your phone is you
Author: Duncan Graham-Rowe
Publication: New Scientist, Vol. 168, No. 2261, p. 38
Publication Date: 10/21/2000
Abstract or Excerpt: Before we let cellphones handle everything from opening our medical records to buying a house, Duncan Graham-Rowe reckons we'll need to make sure people Can't steal our identities.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Mobile Phones, Privacy, Wireless
Keywords: SIM card, subscriber information module, Finnish, Finland, WAP, public key encryption, FINEID

Title: Mobile Communication as a Way of Urban Life
Author: Pasi M�enp��
Publication: Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk and Public Performance, ed. by Mark Aakhus and James Katz (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
Abstract or Excerpt: Mobile telephone is rapidly becoming a necessity product in everyday life. This has happened already in Finland where three out of four persons have a mobile phone. This paper offers observations and interpretations of the mobile phone's effects on the organisation of people's everyday lives and social relationships. It is based on an ethnographical study carried out in Helsinki, Finland, in co-operation with Ph.D. Timo Kopomaa. The study material consists of five group interviews, participant observation, photographs and videotape, as well as Letters to the Editor of the Finland's biggest newspaper Helsingin Sanomat. The data was gathered mainly in 1997 and the study was funded by Nokia Mobile Phones and Telecom Finland (later Sonera).
Subjects: Helsinki, Mobile Phones, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: social interaction, telecommunication, urban culture, lifestyle

Title: Defining a Global Geography (Introduction)
Author: Eszter Hargittai and Miguel Angel Centeno, Princeton University
Publication: American Behavioral Scientist Vol. 44, No. 10 (June 2001): 1545-1560 (Special Issue on Mapping Globalization)
Abstract or Excerpt: The articles in this special issue provide a map for understanding the networks of transfers and relationships that make up the international web of globalization. Globalization involves a variety of links expanding and tightening a web of political, economic, and cultural interconnections. A variety of data indicate that we are undergoing a process of compression of international time and space and an intensification of international relations. Both popular accounts and more rigorous analyses tell us that international connections are increasing; an expanding variety of goods and services are being exchanged across boundaries; more and more people live their professional, family, and intellectual lives in more than one country; and cultural autarky is no longer possible (1). Yet, individual data sources tell us little more than that. How fast are we integrating? What does the global web look like? Who is in the center and who is on the margins? How have these positions shifted over the past two decades? The following dozen studies explore these questions through systematic and historical data, delving into the underlying structure of the apparent integration.
Subjects: Sociology
Keywords: social networks, mapping globalization

Title: Your Face Is Not a Bar Code: Arguments Against Automatic Face Recognition in Public Places
Author: Phil Agre
Publication Date: 9/7/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Given a digital image of a person's face, face recognition software matches it against a database of other images. If any of the stored images matches closely enough, the system reports the sighting to its owner. Research on automatic face recognition has been around for decades, but accelerated in the 1990s. Now it is becoming practical, and face recognition systems are being deployed on a large scale.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Privacy, Surveillance
Keywords: facial recognition, face recognition systems,

Title: FBI's 'Carnivore' Might Target Wireless Text
Author: Robert O'Harrow Jr.
Publication: The Washington Post
Publication Date: 8/24/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: Federal law enforcement authorities may soon expand the use of a controversial FBI monitoring system to capture e-mail and other text messages sent through wireless telephone carriers, as well as messages from their Internet service providers, according to a telecommunications industry group.
Subjects: Handhelds, Mobile Phones, Privacy, SMS, Surveillance, Wireless
Keywords: Carnivore, FBI,

Title: Wireless Goal: Don't Get Whacked
Author: Matthew G. Nelson
Publication: InformationWeek
Publication Date: 7/9/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: "Whacking," we learn in this article, is the wireless equivalent of hacking "usually done by a person who's in the right place at the right time with the right kind of radio transceiver." It's emerging as a large problem for IT security folks as wireless networks become the latest must-have enterprise technology. Although some people feel wireless networks are inherently less secure than their wired counterparts, locking down a wireless network isn't all that different than protecting wired ones. User authentication, data integrity and security to prevent data interception are the key concepts.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Mobile Phones, Privacy, Wireless
Keywords: whacking, hacking, Air2Web

Title: A Market for Secrets
Author: Eytan Adar and Bernardo A. Huberman
Publication: First Monday, volume 6, number 8 (August 2001)
Abstract or Excerpt: We propose an electronic market system for private data that guarantees levels of privacy, anonymity and control to individuals while maintaining the ability of other entities to mine their information and automatically pay individuals for their data. We also describe a novel procedure that allows data miners to anonymously contact the creators of the information in case their profiles are needed for future research.
Subjects: Privacy, Surveillance
Keywords: Information Crystals, Information Atoms, electronic market system, anonymity, data miners

Title: The Mutable Mobile: Social Theory in the Wireless World
Author: Geoff Cooper
Publication: Wireless World, Springer Verlag, Brown, B., Green, R. and Harper, R. (eds)
Abstract or Excerpt: The chapter is organised as follows. I first consider the issue of the technology's transparency, and the challenge that this poses to analysis. I then look at three features of the mobile and its use: the conjunction of remote and co-present interaction; mobility and location; and being available to others. My argument throughout is that one reason why the mobile is of interest is because of its strategic and reflexive value for occasioning the reconsideration of theoretical categories and modes of analysis.
Subjects: Mobile Phones, Sociology, Wireless
Keywords: social interaction, empirical phenomenon, transparency, convergence, public spaces

Title: Going Wireless: Behavior & Practice of New Mobile Phone Users
Author: Leysia Palen, Marilyn Salzman, and Ed Youngs
Publication: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2000), Philadelphia, PA, pp. 201-210
Abstract or Excerpt: We report on the results of a study in which 19 new mobile phone users were closely tracked for the first six weeks after service acquisition. Results show that new users tend to rapidly modify their perceptions of social appropriateness around mobile phone use, that actual nature of use frequently differs from what users initially predict, and that comprehension of service-oriented technologies can be problematic. We describe instances and features of mobile telephony practice. When in use, mobile phones occupy multiple social spaces simultaneously, spaces with norms that sometimes conflict: the physical space of the mobile phone user and the virtual space of the conversation.
Subjects: Mobile Phones
Keywords: wireless communications, digital telephony, communicative practice, qualitative research, mobile telephony, landline telephony, temporal autonomy, Ling, Goffman, micro-coordination, commitment management

Title: Giving the Web a Memory Cost Its Users Privacy
Author: John Schwartz
Publication: New York Times
Publication Date: 9/4/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The History of Cookies, Part One
Subjects: Privacy, Surveillance, Ubiquitous Computing
Keywords: cookies, magic cookies, Netscape Communications, Lou Montulli, persistent client state object, Lawrence Lessig

Title: As Big PC Brother Watches, Users Encounter Frustration
Author: John Schwartz
Publication: New York Times
Publication Date: 9/5/2001
Abstract or Excerpt: The History of Cookies, Part Two
Subjects: Privacy, Surveillance
Keywords: cookies, Zero-Knowledge Systems, Privacy Foundation

Title: WaveMarket
Abstract or Excerpt: WaveMarket develops software for real-time, intelligent processing of spatio-temporal data. This data arises in applications ranging from wireless infrastructure to inventory flow optimization on a plant floor. Current databases lack functions to manipulate and process such data in real time. Further, this data is often imprecise and arrives sporadically.
Subjects: Emerging Technologies (ET), Location Sensitive Devices (LSD), Wireless
Keywords: WaveMarket,

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